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Human midcingulate cortex encodes distributed representations of task progress

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Abstract
The function of midcingulate cortex (MCC) remains elusive despite decades of investigation and debate. Complicating matters, individual MCC neurons respond to highly diverse task-related events, and MCC activation is reported in most human neuroimaging studies employing a wide variety of task manipulations. Here we investigate this issue by applying a model-based cognitive neuroscience approach involving neural network simulations, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and representational similarity analysis. We demonstrate that human MCC encodes distributed, dynamically evolving representations of extended, goal-directed action sequences. These representations are uniquely sensitive to the stage and identity of each sequence, indicating that MCC sustains contextual information necessary for discriminating between task states. These results suggest that standard univariate approaches for analyzing MCC function overlook the major portion of task-related information encoded by this brain area and point to promising new avenues for investigation.
Keywords
ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX, MEDIAL FRONTAL-CORTEX, PREFRONTAL CORTEX, UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS, COGNITIVE CONTROL, ACTION SEQUENCES, MULTI-VOXEL, MOTOR AREA, BEHAVIOR, NEURONS, midcingulate cortex, recurrent neural network, representational, similarity analysis, fMRI, sequence execution

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MLA
Holroyd, Clay, et al. “Human Midcingulate Cortex Encodes Distributed Representations of Task Progress.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 115, no. 25, 2018, pp. 6398–403, doi:10.1073/pnas.1803650115.
APA
Holroyd, C., Ribas-Fernandes, J. J. F., Shahnazian, D., Silvetti, M., & Verguts, T. (2018). Human midcingulate cortex encodes distributed representations of task progress. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 115(25), 6398–6403. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1803650115
Chicago author-date
Holroyd, Clay, Jose J. F. Ribas-Fernandes, Danesh Shahnazian, Massimo Silvetti, and Tom Verguts. 2018. “Human Midcingulate Cortex Encodes Distributed Representations of Task Progress.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 115 (25): 6398–6403. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1803650115.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Holroyd, Clay, Jose J. F. Ribas-Fernandes, Danesh Shahnazian, Massimo Silvetti, and Tom Verguts. 2018. “Human Midcingulate Cortex Encodes Distributed Representations of Task Progress.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 115 (25): 6398–6403. doi:10.1073/pnas.1803650115.
Vancouver
1.
Holroyd C, Ribas-Fernandes JJF, Shahnazian D, Silvetti M, Verguts T. Human midcingulate cortex encodes distributed representations of task progress. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2018;115(25):6398–403.
IEEE
[1]
C. Holroyd, J. J. F. Ribas-Fernandes, D. Shahnazian, M. Silvetti, and T. Verguts, “Human midcingulate cortex encodes distributed representations of task progress,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 115, no. 25, pp. 6398–6403, 2018.
@article{8567707,
  abstract     = {{The function of midcingulate cortex (MCC) remains elusive despite decades of investigation and debate. Complicating matters, individual MCC neurons respond to highly diverse task-related events, and MCC activation is reported in most human neuroimaging studies employing a wide variety of task manipulations. Here we investigate this issue by applying a model-based cognitive neuroscience approach involving neural network simulations, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and representational similarity analysis. We demonstrate that human MCC encodes distributed, dynamically evolving representations of extended, goal-directed action sequences. These representations are uniquely sensitive to the stage and identity of each sequence, indicating that MCC sustains contextual information necessary for discriminating between task states. These results suggest that standard univariate approaches for analyzing MCC function overlook the major portion of task-related information encoded by this brain area and point to promising new avenues for investigation.}},
  author       = {{Holroyd, Clay and Ribas-Fernandes, Jose J. F. and Shahnazian, Danesh and Silvetti, Massimo and Verguts, Tom}},
  issn         = {{0027-8424}},
  journal      = {{PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA}},
  keywords     = {{ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX,MEDIAL FRONTAL-CORTEX,PREFRONTAL CORTEX,UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS,COGNITIVE CONTROL,ACTION SEQUENCES,MULTI-VOXEL,MOTOR AREA,BEHAVIOR,NEURONS,midcingulate cortex,recurrent neural network,representational,similarity analysis,fMRI,sequence execution}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{25}},
  pages        = {{6398--6403}},
  title        = {{Human midcingulate cortex encodes distributed representations of task progress}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1803650115}},
  volume       = {{115}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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