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Mineralization of gellan gum hydrogels with calcium and magnesium carbonates by alternate soaking in solutions of calcium/magnesium and carbonate ion solutions

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Abstract
Mineralization of hydrogels is desirable prior to applications in bone regeneration. CaCO3 is a widely used bone regeneration material, and Mg, when used as a component of calcium phosphate biomaterials, has promoted bone-forming cell adhesion and proliferation and bone regeneration. In this study, gellan gum hydrogels were mineralized with carbonates containing different amounts of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) by alternate soaking in, firstly, a calcium and/or magnesium ion solution and, secondly, a carbonate ion solution. This alternate soaking cycle was repeated five times. Five different calcium and/or magnesium ion solutions, containing different molar ratios of Ca to Mg ranging from Mg free to Ca free were compared. Carbonate mineral formed in all sample groups subjected to the alternate soaking cycle. Ca : Mg elemental ratio in the mineral formed was higher than in the respective mineralizing solution. Mineral formed in the absence of Mg was predominantly CaCO3 in the form of a mixture of calcite and vaterite. Increasing the Mg content in the mineral formed led to the formation of magnesian calcite and decreased the total amount of the mineral formed and its crystallinity. Hydrogel mineralization and increasing Mg content in mineral formed did not obviously improve proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells or differentiation after 7days.
Keywords
calcium carbonate, composite, gellan gum hydrogels, magnesium, mineralization, INTERVERTEBRAL DISC, BONE REGENERATION, INFRARED-SPECTRA, CORALLINE ALGAE, IN-VITRO, VATERITE, BEHAVIOR, DOLOMITE

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MLA
Lopez-Heredia, Marco A, Agata Łapa, Katarzyna Reczynska, et al. “Mineralization of Gellan Gum Hydrogels with Calcium and Magnesium Carbonates by Alternate Soaking in Solutions of Calcium/magnesium and Carbonate Ion Solutions.” JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE 12.8 (2018): 1825–1834. Print.
APA
Lopez-Heredia, M. A., Łapa, A., Reczynska, K., Pietryga, K., Balcaen, L., Mendes, A. C., Schaubroeck, D., et al. (2018). Mineralization of gellan gum hydrogels with calcium and magnesium carbonates by alternate soaking in solutions of calcium/magnesium and carbonate ion solutions. JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, 12(8), 1825–1834.
Chicago author-date
Lopez-Heredia, Marco A, Agata Łapa, Katarzyna Reczynska, Krzysztof Pietryga, Lieve Balcaen, Ana C Mendes, David Schaubroeck, et al. 2018. “Mineralization of Gellan Gum Hydrogels with Calcium and Magnesium Carbonates by Alternate Soaking in Solutions of Calcium/magnesium and Carbonate Ion Solutions.” Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 12 (8): 1825–1834.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lopez-Heredia, Marco A, Agata Łapa, Katarzyna Reczynska, Krzysztof Pietryga, Lieve Balcaen, Ana C Mendes, David Schaubroeck, Pascal Van Der Voort, Agnieszka Dukopil, Agnieszka Plis, Christian Stevens, Bogdan Parakhonskiy, Sangram Keshari Samal, Frank Vanhaecke, Feng Chai, Ioannis S Chronakis, Nicolas Blanchemain, Elzbieta Pamula, Andre Skirtach, and Timothy Douglas. 2018. “Mineralization of Gellan Gum Hydrogels with Calcium and Magnesium Carbonates by Alternate Soaking in Solutions of Calcium/magnesium and Carbonate Ion Solutions.” Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 12 (8): 1825–1834.
Vancouver
1.
Lopez-Heredia MA, Łapa A, Reczynska K, Pietryga K, Balcaen L, Mendes AC, et al. Mineralization of gellan gum hydrogels with calcium and magnesium carbonates by alternate soaking in solutions of calcium/magnesium and carbonate ion solutions. JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE. 2018;12(8):1825–34.
IEEE
[1]
M. A. Lopez-Heredia et al., “Mineralization of gellan gum hydrogels with calcium and magnesium carbonates by alternate soaking in solutions of calcium/magnesium and carbonate ion solutions,” JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1825–1834, 2018.
@article{8567103,
  abstract     = {Mineralization of hydrogels is desirable prior to applications in bone regeneration. CaCO3 is a widely used bone regeneration material, and Mg, when used as a component of calcium phosphate biomaterials, has promoted bone-forming cell adhesion and proliferation and bone regeneration. In this study, gellan gum hydrogels were mineralized with carbonates containing different amounts of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) by alternate soaking in, firstly, a calcium and/or magnesium ion solution and, secondly, a carbonate ion solution. This alternate soaking cycle was repeated five times. Five different calcium and/or magnesium ion solutions, containing different molar ratios of Ca to Mg ranging from Mg free to Ca free were compared. Carbonate mineral formed in all sample groups subjected to the alternate soaking cycle. Ca : Mg elemental ratio in the mineral formed was higher than in the respective mineralizing solution. Mineral formed in the absence of Mg was predominantly CaCO3 in the form of a mixture of calcite and vaterite. Increasing the Mg content in the mineral formed led to the formation of magnesian calcite and decreased the total amount of the mineral formed and its crystallinity. Hydrogel mineralization and increasing Mg content in mineral formed did not obviously improve proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells or differentiation after 7days.},
  author       = {Lopez-Heredia, Marco A and Łapa, Agata and Reczynska, Katarzyna and Pietryga, Krzysztof and Balcaen, Lieve and Mendes, Ana C and Schaubroeck, David and Van Der Voort, Pascal and Dukopil, Agnieszka and Plis, Agnieszka and Stevens, Christian and Parakhonskiy, Bogdan and Samal, Sangram Keshari and Vanhaecke, Frank and Chai, Feng and Chronakis, Ioannis S and Blanchemain, Nicolas and Pamula, Elzbieta and Skirtach, Andre and Douglas, Timothy},
  issn         = {1932-6254},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {calcium carbonate,composite,gellan gum hydrogels,magnesium,mineralization,INTERVERTEBRAL DISC,BONE REGENERATION,INFRARED-SPECTRA,CORALLINE ALGAE,IN-VITRO,VATERITE,BEHAVIOR,DOLOMITE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1825--1834},
  title        = {Mineralization of gellan gum hydrogels with calcium and magnesium carbonates by alternate soaking in solutions of calcium/magnesium and carbonate ion solutions},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.2675},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2018},
}

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