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Graphic cigarette pack warnings do not produce more negative implicit evaluations of smoking compared to text-only warnings

(2018) PLOS ONE. 13(3).
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Abstract
Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally with the aim of reducing smoking behavior. In the current study, we investigated whether GWs influence implicit evaluations of smoking, a potential moderator of smoking behavior, as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Results showed that viewing a GW did not produce more negative implicit evaluations of smoking for daily smokers, occasional smokers, or non-smokers, compared to viewing a text-only warning. If anything, effects were in the direction of evaluations of smoking being more positive after certain participants (i.e., daily and occasional smokers) viewed a GW. We also did not find any beneficial effects of GWs on explicit evaluations of smoking. These results contrast with the observation that non-smokers and occasional smokers (but not daily smokers) believed that GWs would be more effective than the text-only warnings. We discuss implications and limitations of these findings and provide recommendations for improving the effectiveness of cigarette pack warnings on implicit evaluations.
Keywords
ASSOCIATION TEST, EXPLICIT ATTITUDES, METAANALYSIS, IMPACT, SMOKERS, LABELS, PERSUASION, COGNITION, BEHAVIOR, IAT

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Van Dessel, Pieter, Colin Tucker Smith, and Jan De Houwer. 2018. “Graphic Cigarette Pack Warnings Do Not Produce More Negative Implicit Evaluations of Smoking Compared to Text-only Warnings.” Plos One 13 (3).
APA
Van Dessel, P., Smith, C. T., & De Houwer, J. (2018). Graphic cigarette pack warnings do not produce more negative implicit evaluations of smoking compared to text-only warnings. PLOS ONE, 13(3).
Vancouver
1.
Van Dessel P, Smith CT, De Houwer J. Graphic cigarette pack warnings do not produce more negative implicit evaluations of smoking compared to text-only warnings. PLOS ONE. San francisco: Public Library Science; 2018;13(3).
MLA
Van Dessel, Pieter, Colin Tucker Smith, and Jan De Houwer. “Graphic Cigarette Pack Warnings Do Not Produce More Negative Implicit Evaluations of Smoking Compared to Text-only Warnings.” PLOS ONE 13.3 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8566399,
  abstract     = {Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally with the aim of reducing smoking behavior. In the current study, we investigated whether GWs influence implicit evaluations of smoking, a potential moderator of smoking behavior, as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Results showed that viewing a GW did not produce more negative implicit evaluations of smoking for daily smokers, occasional smokers, or non-smokers, compared to viewing a text-only warning. If anything, effects were in the direction of evaluations of smoking being more positive after certain participants (i.e., daily and occasional smokers) viewed a GW. We also did not find any beneficial effects of GWs on explicit evaluations of smoking. These results contrast with the observation that non-smokers and occasional smokers (but not daily smokers) believed that GWs would be more effective than the text-only warnings. We discuss implications and limitations of these findings and provide recommendations for improving the effectiveness of cigarette pack warnings on implicit evaluations.},
  articleno    = {e0194627},
  author       = {Van Dessel, Pieter and Smith, Colin Tucker and De Houwer, Jan},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {ASSOCIATION TEST,EXPLICIT ATTITUDES,METAANALYSIS,IMPACT,SMOKERS,LABELS,PERSUASION,COGNITION,BEHAVIOR,IAT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {15},
  publisher    = {Public Library Science},
  title        = {Graphic cigarette pack warnings do not produce more negative implicit evaluations of smoking compared to text-only warnings},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194627},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2018},
}

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