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Global and regional dissemination and evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei

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Abstract
The environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes an estimated 165,000 cases of human melioidosis per year worldwide and is also classified as a biothreat agent. We used whole genome sequences of 469 B. pseudomallei isolates from 30 countries collected over 79 years to explore its geographic transmission. Our data point to Australia as an early reservoir, with transmission to Southeast Asia followed by onward transmission to South Asia and East Asia. Repeated reintroductions were observed within the Malay Peninsula and between countries bordered by the Mekong River. Our data support an African origin of the Central and South American isolates with introduction of B. pseudomallei into the Americas between 1650 and 1850, providing a temporal link with the slave trade. We also identified geographically distinct genes/variants in Australasian or Southeast Asian isolates alone, with virulence-associated genes being among those over-represented. This provides a potential explanation for clinical manifestations of melioidosis that are geographically restricted.
Keywords
PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS, BAPS SOFTWARE, GENE-TRANSFER, TOOL, SEQUENCES, RECOMBINATION, EPIDEMIOLOGY, MELIOIDOSIS, ALIGNMENTS, ANNOTATION

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Chicago
Chewapreecha, Claire, Matthew TG Holden, Minna Vehkala, Niko Valimaki, Zhirong Yang, Simon R Harris, Alison E Mather, et al. 2017. “Global and Regional Dissemination and Evolution of Burkholderia Pseudomallei.” Nature Microbiology 2 (4).
APA
Chewapreecha, C., Holden, M. T., Vehkala, M., Valimaki, N., Yang, Z., Harris, S. R., Mather, A. E., et al. (2017). Global and regional dissemination and evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei. NATURE MICROBIOLOGY, 2(4).
Vancouver
1.
Chewapreecha C, Holden MT, Vehkala M, Valimaki N, Yang Z, Harris SR, et al. Global and regional dissemination and evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei. NATURE MICROBIOLOGY. 2017;2(4).
MLA
Chewapreecha, Claire, Matthew TG Holden, Minna Vehkala, et al. “Global and Regional Dissemination and Evolution of Burkholderia Pseudomallei.” NATURE MICROBIOLOGY 2.4 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8566109,
  abstract     = {The environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes an estimated 165,000 cases of human melioidosis per year worldwide and is also classified as a biothreat agent. We used whole genome sequences of 469 B. pseudomallei isolates from 30 countries collected over 79 years to explore its geographic transmission. Our data point to Australia as an early reservoir, with transmission to Southeast Asia followed by onward transmission to South Asia and East Asia. Repeated reintroductions were observed within the Malay Peninsula and between countries bordered by the Mekong River. Our data support an African origin of the Central and South American isolates with introduction of B. pseudomallei into the Americas between 1650 and 1850, providing a temporal link with the slave trade. We also identified geographically distinct genes/variants in Australasian or Southeast Asian isolates alone, with virulence-associated genes being among those over-represented. This provides a potential explanation for clinical manifestations of melioidosis that are geographically restricted.},
  articleno    = {16263},
  author       = {Chewapreecha, Claire and Holden, Matthew TG and Vehkala, Minna and Valimaki, Niko and Yang, Zhirong and Harris, Simon R and Mather, Alison E and Tuanyok, Apichai and De Smet, Birgit and Le Hello, Simon and Bizet, Chantal and Mayo, Mark and Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn and Limmathurotsakul, Direk and Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone and Spratt, Brian G and Corander, Jukka and Keim, Paul and Dougan, Gordon and Dance, David AB and Currie, Bart J and Parkhill, Julian and Peacock, Sharon J},
  issn         = {2058-5276},
  journal      = {NATURE MICROBIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {Global and regional dissemination and evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.263},
  volume       = {2},
  year         = {2017},
}

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