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The contribution of Fermi-2LAC blazars to diffuse TeV-PeV neutrino flux

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Abstract
The recent discovery of a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux extending up to PeV energies raises the question of which astrophysical sources generate this signal. Blazars are one class of extragalactic sources which may produce such high-energy neutrinos. We present a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from blazars in the 2nd Fermi-LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using IceCube neutrino data set 2009-12, which was optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to those in previous searches with IceCube, the populations investigated contain up to hundreds of sources, the largest one being the entire blazar sample in the 2LAC catalog. No significant excess is observed, and upper limits for the cumulative flux from these populations are obtained. These constrain the maximum contribution of 2LAC blazars to the observed astrophysical neutrino flux to 27% or less between around 10 TeV and 2 PeV, assuming the equipartition of flavors on Earth and a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index of -2.5. We can still exclude the fact that 2LAC blazars (and their subpopulations) emit more than 50% of the observed neutrinos up to a spectral index as hard as -2.2 in the same energy range. Our result takes into account the fact that the neutrino source count distribution is unknown, and it does not assume strict proportionality of the neutrino flux to the measured 2LAC gamma-ray signal for each source. Additionally, we constrain recent models for neutrino emission by blazars.
Keywords
astroparticle physics, BL Lacertae objects: general, gamma rays: galaxies, methods: data analysis, neutrinos, quasars: general, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, LARGE-AREA TELESCOPE, BL-LACERTAE OBJECTS, HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS, ICECUBE DATA, LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS, MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD, SIMPLIFIED VIEW, SOURCE CATALOG, LAC OBJECTS

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Chicago
Aartsen, MG, K Abraham, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, M Ahrens, et al. 2017. “The Contribution of Fermi-2LAC Blazars to Diffuse TeV-PeV Neutrino Flux.” Astrophysical Journal 835 (1).
APA
Aartsen, M., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., et al. (2017). The contribution of Fermi-2LAC blazars to diffuse TeV-PeV neutrino flux. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 835(1).
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen M, Abraham K, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar J, Ahlers M, et al. The contribution of Fermi-2LAC blazars to diffuse TeV-PeV neutrino flux. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2017;835(1).
MLA
Aartsen, MG, K Abraham, M Ackermann, et al. “The Contribution of Fermi-2LAC Blazars to Diffuse TeV-PeV Neutrino Flux.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 835.1 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8565637,
  abstract     = {The recent discovery of a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux extending up to PeV energies raises the question of which astrophysical sources generate this signal. Blazars are one class of extragalactic sources which may produce such high-energy neutrinos. We present a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from blazars in the 2nd Fermi-LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using IceCube neutrino data set 2009-12, which was optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to those in previous searches with IceCube, the populations investigated contain up to hundreds of sources, the largest one being the entire blazar sample in the 2LAC catalog. No significant excess is observed, and upper limits for the cumulative flux from these populations are obtained. These constrain the maximum contribution of 2LAC blazars to the observed astrophysical neutrino flux to 27\% or less between around 10 TeV and 2 PeV, assuming the equipartition of flavors on Earth and a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index of -2.5. We can still exclude the fact that 2LAC blazars (and their subpopulations) emit more than 50\% of the observed neutrinos up to a spectral index as hard as -2.2 in the same energy range. Our result takes into account the fact that the neutrino source count distribution is unknown, and it does not assume strict proportionality of the neutrino flux to the measured 2LAC gamma-ray signal for each source. Additionally, we constrain recent models for neutrino emission by blazars.},
  articleno    = {45},
  author       = {Aartsen, MG and Abraham, K and Ackermann, M and Adams, J and Aguilar, JA and Ahlers, M and Ahrens, M and Altmann, D and Andeen, K and Anderson, T and Ansseau, I and Anton, G and Archinger, M and Arguelles, C and Arlen, TC and Auffenberg, J and Axani, S and Bai, X and Barwick, SW and Baum, V and Bay, R and Beatty, JJ and Becker Tjus, J and Becker, K-H and BenZvi, S and Berghaus, P and Berley, D and Bernardini, E and Bernhard, A and Besson, DZ and Binder, G and Bindig, D and Bissok, M and Blaufuss, E and Blot, S and Boersma, DJ and Bohm, C and Boerner, M and Bos, F and Bose, D and Boeser, S and Botner, O and Braun, J and Brayeur, L and Bretz, H-P and Burgman, A and Casey, J and Casier, M and Cheung, E and Chirkin, D and Christov, A and Clark, K and Classen, L. and Coenders, S and Collin, GH and Conrad, JM and Cowen, DF and Cruz Silva, AH and Daughhetee, J and Davis, JC and Day, M and de Andre, JPAM and De Clercq, C and del Pino Rosendo, E.  and Dembinski, H and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P and de Vries, KD and de Wasseige, G and de With, M and DeYoung, T and Diaz-Velez, JC and di Lorenzo, V and Dujmovic, H and Dumm, JP and Dunkman, M and Eberhardt, B and Ehrhardt, T and Eichmann, B and Euler, S and Evenson, PA and Fahey, S and Fazely, AR and Feintzeig, J and Felde, J and Filimonov, K and Finley, C and Flis, S and Foesig, C-C and Franckowiak, A and Fuchs, T and Gaisser, TK and Gaior, R and Gallagher, J and Gerhardt, L and Ghorbani, K and Giang, W and Gladstone, L and Glagla, M and Gluesenkamp, T and Goldschmidt, A and Golup, G and Gonzalez, JG and Gora, D and Grant, D and Griffith, Z and Haack, C and Haj Ismail, Abd Al Karim and Hallgren, A and Halzen, F and Hansen, E and Hansmann, B and Hansmann, T and Hanson, K and Hebecker, D and Heereman, D and Helbing, K and Hellauer, R and Hickford, S and Hignight, J and Hill, GC and Hoffman, KD and Hoffmann, R and Holzapfel, K and Homeier, A and Hoshina, K and Huang, F and Huber, M and Huelsnitz, W and Hultqvist, K and In, S and Ishihara, A and Jacobi, E and Japaridze, GS and Jeong, M and Jero, K and Jones, BJP and Jurkovic, M and Kappes, A and Karg, T and Karle, A and Katz, U and Kauer, M and Keivani, A and Kelley, JL and Kemp, J and Kheirandish, A and Kim, M and Kintscher, T and Kiryluk, J and Kittler, T and Klein, SR and Kohnen, G and Koirala, R and Kolanoski, H and Konietz, R and Koepke, L and Kopper, C and Kopper, S and Koskinen, DJ and Kowalski, M and Krings, K and Kroll, M and Krueckl, G and Krueger, C and Kunnen, J and Kunwar, S and Kurahashi, N and Kuwabara, T and Labare, Mathieu and Lanfranchi, JL and Larson, MJ and Lennarz, D and Lesiak-Bzdak, M and Leuermann, M and Leuner, J and Lu, L and Lunemann, J and Madsen, J and Maggi, G and Mahn, KBM and Mancina, S and Mandelartz, M and Maruyama, R and Mase, K and Maunu, R and McNally, F and Meagher, K and Medici, M and Meier, M and Meli, Athina and Menne, T and Merino, G and Meures, T and Miarecki, S and Middell, E and Mohrmann, L and Montaruli, T and Moulai, M and Nahnhauer, R and Naumann, U and Neer, G and Niederhausen, H and Nowicki, SC and Nygren, DR and Obertacke Pollmann, A. and Olivas, A and Omairat, A and O'Murchadha, A and Palczewski, T and Pandya, H and Pankova, DV and Penek, Oe and Pepper, JA and Perez de los Heros, C and Pfendner, C and Pieloth, D and Pinat, E and Posselt, J and Price, PB and Przybylski, GT and Quinnan, M and Raab, C and Raedel, L and Rameez, M and Rawlins, K and Reimann, R and Relich, M and Resconi, E and Rhode, W and Richman, M and Riedel, B and Robertson, S and Rongen, M and Rott, C and Ruhe, T and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D and Sabbatini, L and Sanchez Herrera, SE and Sandrock, A and Sandroos, J and Sarkar, S and Satalecka, K and Schimp, M and Schlunder, P and Schmidt, T and Schoenen, S and Schoeneberg, S and Schoenwald, A and Schumacher, L and Seckel, D and Seunarine, S and Soldin, D and Song, M and Spiczak, GM and Spiering, C and Stahlberg, M and Stamatikos, M and Stanev, T and Stasik, A and Steuer, A and Stezelberger, T and Stokstad, RG and Stoessl, A and Strom, R and Strotjohann, NL and Sullivan, GW and Sutherland, M and Taavola, H and Taboada, I and Tatar, J and Ter-Antonyan, S and Terliuk, A and Tesic, G and Tilav, S and Toale, PA and Tobin, MN and Toscano, S and Tosi, D and Tselengidou, M and Turcati, A and Unger, E and Usner, M and Vallecorsa, S and Vandenbroucke, J and van Eijndhoven, N and Vanheule, Sander and van Rossem, M and van Santen, J and Veenkamp, J and Vehring, M and Voge, M and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C and Wallace, A and Wallraff, M and Wandkowsky, N and Weaver, Ch and Wendt, C and Westerhoff, S and Whelan, BJ and Wickmann, S and Wiebe, K and Wiebusch, CH and Wille, L and Williams, DR and Wills, L and Wissing, H and Wolf, M and Wood, TR and Woolsey, E and Woschnagg, K and Xu, DL and Xu, XW and Xu, Y and Yanez, JP and Yodh, G and Yoshida, S and Zoll, M},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keyword      = {astroparticle physics,BL Lacertae objects: general,gamma rays: galaxies,methods: data analysis,neutrinos,quasars: general,ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI,LARGE-AREA TELESCOPE,BL-LACERTAE OBJECTS,HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS,ICECUBE DATA,LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS,MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD,SIMPLIFIED VIEW,SOURCE CATALOG,LAC OBJECTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {The contribution of Fermi-2LAC blazars to diffuse TeV-PeV neutrino flux},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/45},
  volume       = {835},
  year         = {2017},
}

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