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The IceCube Neutrino Observatory : instrumentation and online systems

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Abstract
The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer-scale high-energy neutrino detector built into the ice at the South Pole. Construction of IceCube, the largest neutrino detector built to date, was completed in 2011 and enabled the discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. We describe here the design, production, and calibration of the IceCube digital optical module (DOM), the cable systems, computing hardware, and our methodology for drilling and deployment. We also describe the online triggering and data filtering systems that select candidate neutrino and cosmic ray events for analysis. Due to a rigorous pre-deployment protocol, 98.4% of the DOMs in the deep ice are operating and collecting data. IceCube routinely achieves a detector uptime of 99% by emphasizing software stability and monitoring. Detector operations have been stable since construction was completed, and the detector is expected to operate at least until the end of the next decade.
Keywords
Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics, Neutrino detectors, Online farms and online filtering, Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software), DATA-ACQUISITION SYSTEM, NEEM ICE CORE, SOUTH-POLE, GLACIAL ICE, PERFORMANCE, STRATIGRAPHY, TELESCOPE, AMANDA, DESIGN, RECONSTRUCTION

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Chicago
Aartsen, MG, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, M Ahrens, D Altmann, et al. 2017. “The IceCube Neutrino Observatory : Instrumentation and Online Systems.” Journal of Instrumentation 12.
APA
Aartsen, M., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., et al. (2017). The IceCube Neutrino Observatory : instrumentation and online systems. JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, 12.
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen M, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar J, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory : instrumentation and online systems. JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION. 2017;12.
MLA
Aartsen, MG, M Ackermann, J Adams, et al. “The IceCube Neutrino Observatory : Instrumentation and Online Systems.” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION 12 (2017): n. pag. Print.
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  abstract     = {The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer-scale high-energy neutrino detector built into the ice at the South Pole. Construction of IceCube, the largest neutrino detector built to date, was completed in 2011 and enabled the discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. We describe here the design, production, and calibration of the IceCube digital optical module (DOM), the cable systems, computing hardware, and our methodology for drilling and deployment. We also describe the online triggering and data filtering systems that select candidate neutrino and cosmic ray events for analysis. Due to a rigorous pre-deployment protocol, 98.4\% of the DOMs in the deep ice are operating and collecting data. IceCube routinely achieves a detector uptime of 99\% by emphasizing software stability and monitoring. Detector operations have been stable since construction was completed, and the detector is expected to operate at least until the end of the next decade.},
  articleno    = {P03012},
  author       = {Aartsen, MG and Ackermann, M and Adams, J and Aguilar, JA and Ahlers, M and Ahrens, M and Altmann, D and Andeen, K and Anderson, T and Ansseau, I and Anton, G and Archinger, M and Arguelles, C and Auer, R and Auffenberg, J and Axani, S and Baccus, J and Bai, X and Barnet, S and Barwick, SW and Baum, V and Bay, R and Beattie, K and Beatty, JJ and Becker Tjus, J and Becker, K-H and Bendfelt, T and BenZvi, S and Berley, D and Bernardini, E and Bernhard, A and Besson, DZ and Binder, G and Bindig, D and Bissok, M and Blaufuss, E and Blot, S and Boersma, D and Bohm, C and Boerner, M and Bos, F and Bose, D and Boeser, S and Botner, O and Bouchta, A and Braun, J and Brayeur, L and Bretz, H-P and Bron, S and Burgman, A and Burreson, C and Carver, T and Casier, M and Cheung, E and Chirkin, D and Christov, A and Clark, K and Classen, L and Coenders, S and Collin, GH and Conrad, JM and Cowen, DF and Cross, R and Day, C and Day, M and de Andre, JPAM and De Clercq, C and del Pino Rosendo, E and Dembinski, H and De Ridder, Sam and Descamps, Freija and Desiati, P and de Vries, KD and de Wasseige, G and de With, M and DeYoung, T and Diaz-Velez, JC and di Lorenzo, V and Dujmovic, H and Dumm, JP and Dunkman, M and Eberhardt, B and Edwards, WR and Ehrhardt, T and Eichmann, B and Eller, P and Euler, S and Evenson, PA and Fahey, S and Fazely, AR and Feintzeig, J and Felde, J and Filimonov, K and Finley, C and Flis, S and Foesig, C-C and Franckowiak, A and Frere, M and Friedman, E and Fuchs, T and Gaisser, TK and Gallagher, J and Gerhardt, L and Ghorbani, K and Giang, W and Gladstone, L and Glauch, T and Glowacki, D and Gluesenkamp, T and Goldschmidt, A and Gonzalez, JG and Grant, D and Griffith, Z and Gustafsson, L and Haack, C and Hallgren, A and Halzen, F and Hansen, E and Hansmann, T and Hanson, K and Haugen, J and Hebecker, D and Heereman, D and Helbing, K and Hellauer, R and Heller, R and Hickford, S and Hignight, J and Hill, GC and Hoffman, KD and Hoffmann, R and Hoshina, K and Huang, F and Huber, M and Hulth, PO and Hultqvist, K and In, S and Inaba, M and Ishihara, A and Jacobi, E and Jacobsen, J and Japaridze, GS and Jeong, M and Jero, K and Jones, A and Jones, BJP and Joseph, J and Kang, W and Kappes, A and Karg, T and Karle, A and Katz, U and Kauer, M and Keivani, A and Kelley, JL and Kemp, J and Kheirandish, A and Kim, J and Kim, M and Kintscher, T and Kiryluk, J and Kitamura, N and Kittler, T and Klein, SR and Kleinfelder, S and Kleist, M and Kohnen, G and Koirala, R and Kolanoski, H and Konietz, R and Koepke, L and Kopper, C and Kopper, S and Koskinen, DJ and Kowalski, M and Krasberg, M and Krings, K and Kroll, M and Krueckl, G and Kruger, C and Kunnen, J and Kunwar, S and Kurahashi, N and Kuwabara, T and Labare, Mathieu and Laihem, K and Landsman, H and Lanfranchi, JL and Larson, MJ and Lauber, F and Laundrie, A and Lennarz, D and Leich, H and Lesiak-Bzdak, M and Leuermann, M and Lu, L and Ludwig, J and Lunemann, J and Mackenzie, C and Madsen, J and Maggi, G and Mahn, KBM and Mancina, S and Mandelartz, M and Maruyama, R and Mase, K and Matis, H and Maunu, R and McNally, F and McParland, CP and Meade, P and Meagher, K and Medici, M and Meier, M and Meli, Athina and Menne, T and Merino, G and Meures, T and Miarecki, S and Minor, RH and Montaruli, T and Moulai, M and Murray, T and Nahnhauer, R and Naumann, U and Neer, G and Newcomb, M and Niederhausen, H and Nowicki, SC and Nygren, DR and Obertacke Pollmann, A and Olivas, A and O'Murchadha, A and Palczewski, T and Pandya, H and Pankova, DV and Patton, S and Peiffer, P and Penek, O and Pepper, JA and Perez de los Heros, C and Pettersen, C and Pieloth, D and Pinat, E and Price, PB and Przybylski, GT and Quinnan, M and Raab, C and Raedel, L and Rameez, M and Rawlins, K. and Reimann, R and Relethford, B and Relich, M and Resconi, E and Rhode, W and Richman, M and Riedel, B and Robertson, S and Rongen, M and Roucelle, C and Rott, C and Ruhe, T and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D and Sabbatini, L and Sanchez Herrera, SE and Sandrock, A and Sandroos, J and Sandstrom, P and Sarkar, S and Satalecka, K and Schlunder, P and Schmidt, T and Schoenen, S and Schoeneberg, S and Schukraft, A and Schumacher, L and Seckel, D and Seunarine, S and Solarz, M and Soldin, D and Song, M and Spiczak, GM and Spiering, C and Stanev, T and Stasik, A and Stettner, J and Steuer, A and Stezelberger, T and Stokstad, RG and Stoessl, A and Strom, R and Strotjohann, NL and Sulanke, K-H and Sullivan, GW and Sutherland, M and Taavola, H and Taboada, I and Tatar, J and Tenholt, F and Ter-Antonyan, S and Terliuk, A and Tesic, G and Thollander, L and Tilav, S and Toale, PA and Tobin, MN and Toscano, S and Tosi, D and Tselengidou, M and Turcati, A and Unger, E and Usner, M and Vandenbroucke, J and van Eijndhoven, N and Vanheule, Sander and van Rossem, M and van Santen, J and Vehring, M and Voge, M and Vogel, E and Vraeghe, Matthias and Wahl, D and Walck, C and Wallace, A and Wallraff, M and Wandkowsky, N and Weaver, Ch and Weiss, MJ and Wendt, C and Westerhoff, S and Wharton, D and Whelan, BJ and Wickmann, S and Wiebe, K and Wiebusch, CH and Wille, L and Williams, DR and Wills, L and Wisniewski, P and Wolf, M and Wood, TR and Woolsey, E and Woschnagg, K and Xu, DL and Xu, XW and Xu, Y and Yanez, JP and Yodh, G and Yoshida, S and Zoll, M},
  issn         = {1748-0221},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION},
  keyword      = {Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics,Neutrino detectors,Online farms and online filtering,Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software),DATA-ACQUISITION SYSTEM,NEEM ICE CORE,SOUTH-POLE,GLACIAL ICE,PERFORMANCE,STRATIGRAPHY,TELESCOPE,AMANDA,DESIGN,RECONSTRUCTION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {81},
  title        = {The IceCube Neutrino Observatory : instrumentation and online systems},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/12/03/P03012},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}

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