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Multiwavelength follow-up of a rare IceCube neutrino multiplet

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Abstract
On February 17, 2016, the IceCube real-time neutrino search identified, for the first time, three muon neutrino candidates arriving within 100 s of one another, consistent with coming from the same point in the sky. Such a triplet is expected once every 13.7 years as a random coincidence of background events. However, considering the lifetime of the follow-up program the probability of detecting at least one triplet from atmospheric background is 32%. Follow-up observatories were notified in order to search for an electromagnetic counterpart. Observations were obtained by Swift's X-ray telescope, by ASAS-SN, LCO and MASTER at optical wavelengths, and by VERITAS in the very-high-energy gamma-ray regime. Moreover, the Swift BAT serendipitously observed the location 100 s after the first neutrino was detected, and data from the Fermi LAT and HAWC observatory were analyzed. We present details of the neutrino triplet and the follow-up observations. No likely electromagnetic counterpart was detected, and we discuss the implications of these constraints on candidate neutrino sources such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and active galactic nucleus flares. This study illustrates the potential of and challenges for future follow-up campaigns.
Keywords
astroparticle physics, neutrinos, gamma-ray burst: general, supernovae: general, galaxies: active, X-rays: bursts, GAMMA-RAY BURSTS, GRB OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, LARGE-AREA TELESCOPE, SWIFT-BAT SURVEY, ALL-SKY SURVEY, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, TIDAL DISRUPTION, ALERT SYSTEM, EMISSION

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MLA
Aartsen, MG et al. “Multiwavelength Follow-up of a Rare IceCube Neutrino Multiplet.” ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 607 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Aartsen, M., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Al Samarai, I., et al. (2017). Multiwavelength follow-up of a rare IceCube neutrino multiplet. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, 607.
Chicago author-date
Aartsen, MG, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, M Ahrens, I Al Samarai, et al. 2017. “Multiwavelength Follow-up of a Rare IceCube Neutrino Multiplet.” Astronomy & Astrophysics 607.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aartsen, MG, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, M Ahrens, I Al Samarai, D Altmann, K Andeen, T Anderson, I Ansseau, G Anton, M Archinger, C Arguelles, J Auffenberg, S Axani, X Bai, SW Barwick, V Baum, R Bay, JJ Beatty, J Becker Tjus, K-H Becker, S BenZvi, D Berley, E Bernardini, A Bernhard, DZ Besson, G Binder, D Bindig, E Blaufuss, S Blot, C Bohm, M Boerner, F Bos, D Bose, S Boeser, O Botner, J Braun, L Brayeur, H-P Bretz, S Bron, A Burgman, T Carver, M Casier, E Cheung, D Chirkin, A Christov, K Clark, L Classen, S Coenders, GH Collin, JM Conrad, DF Cowen, R Cross, M Day, JPAM de Andre, C De Clercq, E del Pino Rosendo, H Dembinski, Sam De Ridder, P Desiati, KD de Vries, G de Wasseige, M de With, T DeYoung, V di Lorenzo, H Dujmovic, JP Dumm, M Dunkman, B Eberhardt, T Ehrhardt, B Eichmann, P Eller, S Euler, PA Evenson, S Fahey, AR Fazely, J Feintzeig, J Felde, K Filimonov, C Finley, S Flis, C-C Foesig, A Franckowiak, E Friedman, T Fuchs, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, K Ghorbani, W Giang, L Gladstone, T Glauch, T Gluesekamp, A Goldschmidt, JG Gonzalez, D Grant, Z Griffith, C Haack, A Hallgren, F Halzen, E Hansen, T Hansmann, K Hanson, D Hebecker, D Heereman, K Helbing, R Hellauer, S Hickford, J Hignight, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, R Hoffmann, K Hoshina, F Huang, M Huber, K Hultqvist, S In, A Ishihara, E Jacobi, GS Japaridze, M Jeong, K Jero, BJP Jones, W Kang, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, U Katz, M Kauer, A Keivani, JL Kelley, A Kheirandish, J Kim, M Kim, T Kintscher, J Kiryluk, T Kittler, SR Klein, G Kohnen, R Koirala, H Kolanoski, R Konietz, L Koepke, C Kopper, S Kopper, DJ Koskinen, M Kowalski, K Krings, M Kroll, G Krueckl, C Krueger, J Kunnen, S Kunwar, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, A Kyriacou, Mathieu Labare, JL Lanfranchi, MJ Larson, F Lauber, M Lesiak-Bzdak, M Leuermann, L Lu, J Luenemann, J Madsen, G Maggi, KBM Mahn, S Mancina, M Mandelartz, R Maruyama, K Mase, R Maunu, F McNally, K Meagher, M Medici, M Meier, T Menne, G Merino, T Meures, S Miarecki, J Micallef, G Momente, T Montaruli, M Moulai, R Nahnhauer, U Naumann, G Neer, H Niederhausen, SC Nowicki, DR Nygren, A Obertacke Pollmann, A Olivas, A O’Murchadha, T Palczewski, H Pandya, DV Pankova, P Peiffer, O Penek, JA Pepper, C Perez de los Heros, D Pieloth, E Pinat, PB Price, GT Przybylski, M Quinnan, C Raab, L Raedel, M Rameez, K Rawlins, R Reimann, B Relethford, M Relich, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Richman, B Riedel, S Robertson, M Rongen, C Rott, T Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D Rysewyk, L Sabbatini, SE Sanchez Herrera, A Sandrock, J Sandroos, S Sarkar, K Satalecka, P Schlunder, T Schmidt, S Schoenen, S Schoeneberg, L Schumacher, D Seckel, S Seunarine, D Soldin, M Song, GM Spiczak, C Spiering, J Stachurska, T Stanev, A Stasik, J Stettner, A Steuer, T Stezelberger, RG Stokstad, A Stoessl, R Stroem, NL Strotjohann, GW Sullivan, M Sutherland, H Taavola, I Taboada, J Tatar, F Tenholt, S Ter-Antonyan, A Terliuk, G Tesic, S Tilav, PA Toale, MN Tobin, S Toscano, D Tosi, M Tselengidou, CF Tung, A Turcati, E Unger, M Usner, J Vandenbroucke, N van Eijndhoven, Sander Vanheule, M van Rossem, J van Santen, M Vehring, M Voge, E Vogel, Matthias Vraeghe, C Walck, A Wallace, M Wallraff, N Wandkowsky, A Waza, Ch Weaver, MJ Weiss, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, BJ Whelan, S Wickmann, K Wiebe, CH Wiebusch, L Wille, DR Williams, L Wills, M Wolf, TR Wood, E Woolsey, K Woschnagg, DL Xu, XW Xu, Y Xu, JP Yanez, G Yodh, S Yoshida, M Zoll, KZ Stanek, BJ Shappee, CS Kochanek, TW-S Holoien, JL Prieto, DB Fox, JJ DeLaunay, CF Turley, SD Barthelmy, AY Lien, P Meszaros, K Murase, D Kocevski, R Buehler, M Giomi, JL Racusin, A Albert, R Alfaro, C Alvarez, JD Alvarez, R Arceo, JC Arteaga-Velazquez, HA Ayala Solares, AS Barber, N Baustista-Elivar, A Becerril, E Belmont-Moreno, A Bernal, C Brisbois, KS Caballero-Mora, T Capistran, A Carraminana, S Casanova, M Castillo, U Cotti, S Coutino de Leon, E de la Fuente, C De Leon, R Diaz Hernandez, JC Diaz-Velez, BL Dingus, MA DuVernois, RW Ellsworth, K Engel, DW Fiorino, N Fraija, JA Garcia-Gonzalez, M Gerhardt, A Gonzalez Munoz, MM Gonzalez, JA Goodman, Z Hampel-Arias, JP Harding, S Hernandez, CM Hui, P Huentemeyer, A Iriarte, A Jardin-Blicq, V Joshi, S Kaufmann, A Lara, RJ Lauer, WH Lee, D Lennarz, H Leon Vargas, JT Linnemann, G Luis Raya, R Luna-Garcia, R Lopez-Coto, K Malone, SS Marinelli, O Martinez, I Martinez-Castellanos, J Martinez-Castro, H Martinez-Huerta, JA Matthews, P Miranda-Romagnoli, E Moreno, M Mostafa, L Nellen, M Newbold, MU Nisa, R Noriega-Papaqui, R Pelayo, J Pretz, EG Perez-Perez, Z Ren, CD Rho, C Riviere, D Rosa-Gonzalez, M Rosenberg, F Salesa Greus, A Sandoval, M Schneider, H Schoorlemmer, G Sinnis, AJ Smith, RW Springer, P Surajbali, O Tibolla, K Tollefson, I Torres, TN Ukwatta, L Villasenor, T Weisgarber, IG Wisher, J Wood, T Yapici, A Zepeda, H Zhou, I Arcavi, G Hosseinzadeh, DA Howell, S Valenti, C McCully, VM Lipunov, ES Gorbovskoy, NV Tiurina, PV Balanutsa, AS Kuznetsov, VG Kornilov, V Chazov, NM Budnev, OA Gress, KI Ivanov, AG Tlatov, R Rebolo Lopez, M Serra-Ricart, PA Evans, JA Kennea, N Gehrels, JP Osborne, KL Page, AU Abeysekara, A Archer, W Benbow, R Bird, T Brantseg, V Bugaev, JV Cardenzana, MP Connolly, W Cui, A Falcone, Q Feng, JP Finley, H Fleischhack, L Fortson, A Furniss, S Griffin, J Grube, M Huetten, O Hervet, J Holder, G Hughes, TB Humensky, CA Johnson, P Kaaret, P Kar, N Kelley-Hoskins, M Kertzman, M Krause, S Kumar, MJ Lang, TTY Lin, S McArthur, P Moriarty, R Mukherjee, D Nieto, RA Ong, AN Otte, M Pohl, A Popkow, E Pueschel, J Quinn, K Ragan, PT Reynolds, GT Richards, E Roache, C Rulten, I Sadeh, M Santander, GH Sembroski, D Staszak, S Trepanier, J Tyler, SP Wakely, A Weinstein, P Wilcox, A Wilhelm, DA Williams, B Zitzer, E Bellm, Z Cano, A Gal-Yam, DA Kann, EO Ofek, M Rigault, and M Soumagnac. 2017. “Multiwavelength Follow-up of a Rare IceCube Neutrino Multiplet.” Astronomy & Astrophysics 607.
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen M, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar J, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. Multiwavelength follow-up of a rare IceCube neutrino multiplet. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS. 2017;607.
IEEE
[1]
M. Aartsen et al., “Multiwavelength follow-up of a rare IceCube neutrino multiplet,” ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, vol. 607, 2017.
@article{8565178,
  abstract     = {On February 17, 2016, the IceCube real-time neutrino search identified, for the first time, three muon neutrino candidates arriving within 100 s of one another, consistent with coming from the same point in the sky. Such a triplet is expected once every 13.7 years as a random coincidence of background events. However, considering the lifetime of the follow-up program the probability of detecting at least one triplet from atmospheric background is 32%. Follow-up observatories were notified in order to search for an electromagnetic counterpart. Observations were obtained by Swift's X-ray telescope, by ASAS-SN, LCO and MASTER at optical wavelengths, and by VERITAS in the very-high-energy gamma-ray regime. Moreover, the Swift BAT serendipitously observed the location 100 s after the first neutrino was detected, and data from the Fermi LAT and HAWC observatory were analyzed. We present details of the neutrino triplet and the follow-up observations. No likely electromagnetic counterpart was detected, and we discuss the implications of these constraints on candidate neutrino sources such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and active galactic nucleus flares. This study illustrates the potential of and challenges for future follow-up campaigns.},
  articleno    = {A115},
  author       = {Aartsen, MG and Ackermann, M and Adams, J and Aguilar, JA and Ahlers, M and Ahrens, M and Al Samarai, I and Altmann, D and Andeen, K and Anderson, T and Ansseau, I and Anton, G and Archinger, M and Arguelles, C and Auffenberg, J and Axani, S and Bai, X and Barwick, SW and Baum, V and Bay, R and Beatty, JJ and Becker Tjus, J and Becker, K-H and BenZvi, S and Berley, D and Bernardini, E and Bernhard, A and Besson, DZ and Binder, G and Bindig, D and Blaufuss, E and Blot, S and Bohm, C and Boerner, M and Bos, F and Bose, D and Boeser, S and Botner, O and Braun, J and Brayeur, L and Bretz, H-P and Bron, S and Burgman, A and Carver, T and Casier, M and Cheung, E and Chirkin, D and Christov, A and Clark, K and Classen, L and Coenders, S and Collin, GH and Conrad, JM and Cowen, DF and Cross, R and Day, M and de Andre, JPAM and De Clercq, C and del Pino Rosendo, E and Dembinski, H and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P and de Vries, KD and de Wasseige, G and de With, M and DeYoung, T and di Lorenzo, V and Dujmovic, H and Dumm, JP and Dunkman, M and Eberhardt, B and Ehrhardt, T and Eichmann, B and Eller, P and Euler, S and Evenson, PA and Fahey, S and Fazely, AR and Feintzeig, J and Felde, J and Filimonov, K and Finley, C and Flis, S and Foesig, C-C and Franckowiak, A and Friedman, E and Fuchs, T and Gaisser, TK and Gallagher, J and Gerhardt, L and Ghorbani, K and Giang, W and Gladstone, L and Glauch, T and Gluesekamp, T and Goldschmidt, A and Gonzalez, JG and Grant, D and Griffith, Z and Haack, C and Hallgren, A and Halzen, F and Hansen, E and Hansmann, T and Hanson, K and Hebecker, D and Heereman, D and Helbing, K and Hellauer, R and Hickford, S and Hignight, J and Hill, GC and Hoffman, KD and Hoffmann, R and Hoshina, K and Huang, F and Huber, M and Hultqvist, K and In, S and Ishihara, A and Jacobi, E and Japaridze, GS and Jeong, M and Jero, K and Jones, BJP and Kang, W and Kappes, A and Karg, T and Karle, A and Katz, U and Kauer, M and Keivani, A and Kelley, JL and Kheirandish, A and Kim, J and Kim, M and Kintscher, T and Kiryluk, J and Kittler, T and Klein, SR and Kohnen, G and Koirala, R and Kolanoski, H and Konietz, R and Koepke, L and Kopper, C and Kopper, S and Koskinen, DJ and Kowalski, M and Krings, K and Kroll, M and Krueckl, G and Krueger, C and Kunnen, J and Kunwar, S and Kurahashi, N and Kuwabara, T and Kyriacou, A and Labare, Mathieu and Lanfranchi, JL and Larson, MJ and Lauber, F and Lesiak-Bzdak, M and Leuermann, M and Lu, L and Luenemann, J and Madsen, J and Maggi, G and Mahn, KBM and Mancina, S and Mandelartz, M and Maruyama, R and Mase, K and Maunu, R and McNally, F and Meagher, K and Medici, M and Meier, M and Menne, T and Merino, G and Meures, T and Miarecki, S and Micallef, J and Momente, G and Montaruli, T and Moulai, M and Nahnhauer, R and Naumann, U and Neer, G and Niederhausen, H and Nowicki, SC and Nygren, DR and Obertacke Pollmann, A and Olivas, A and O'Murchadha, A and Palczewski, T and Pandya, H and Pankova, DV and Peiffer, P and Penek, O and Pepper, JA and Perez de los Heros, C and Pieloth, D and Pinat, E and Price, PB and Przybylski, GT and Quinnan, M and Raab, C and Raedel, L and Rameez, M and Rawlins, K and Reimann, R and Relethford, B and Relich, M and Resconi, E and Rhode, W and Richman, M and Riedel, B and Robertson, S and Rongen, M and Rott, C and Ruhe, T and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D and Sabbatini, L and Sanchez Herrera, SE and Sandrock, A and Sandroos, J and Sarkar, S and Satalecka, K and Schlunder, P and Schmidt, T and Schoenen, S and Schoeneberg, S and Schumacher, L and Seckel, D and Seunarine, S and Soldin, D and Song, M and Spiczak, GM and Spiering, C and Stachurska, J and Stanev, T and Stasik, A and Stettner, J and Steuer, A and Stezelberger, T and Stokstad, RG and Stoessl, A and Stroem, R and Strotjohann, NL and Sullivan, GW and Sutherland, M and Taavola, H and Taboada, I and Tatar, J and Tenholt, F and Ter-Antonyan, S and Terliuk, A and Tesic, G and Tilav, S and Toale, PA and Tobin, MN and Toscano, S and Tosi, D and Tselengidou, M and Tung, CF and Turcati, A and Unger, E and Usner, M and Vandenbroucke, J and van Eijndhoven, N and Vanheule, Sander and van Rossem, M and van Santen, J and Vehring, M and Voge, M and Vogel, E and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C and Wallace, A and Wallraff, M and Wandkowsky, N and Waza, A and Weaver, Ch and Weiss, MJ and Wendt, C and Westerhoff, S and Whelan, BJ and Wickmann, S and Wiebe, K and Wiebusch, CH and Wille, L and Williams, DR and Wills, L and Wolf, M and Wood, TR and Woolsey, E and Woschnagg, K and Xu, DL and Xu, XW and Xu, Y and Yanez, JP and Yodh, G and Yoshida, S and Zoll, M and Stanek, KZ and Shappee, BJ and Kochanek, CS and Holoien, TW-S and Prieto, JL and Fox, DB and DeLaunay, JJ and Turley, CF and Barthelmy, SD and Lien, AY and Meszaros, P and Murase, K and Kocevski, D and Buehler, R and Giomi, M and Racusin, JL and Albert, A and Alfaro, R and Alvarez, C and Alvarez, JD and Arceo, R and Arteaga-Velazquez, JC and Ayala Solares, HA and Barber, AS and Baustista-Elivar, N and Becerril, A and Belmont-Moreno, E and Bernal, A and Brisbois, C and Caballero-Mora, KS and Capistran, T and Carraminana, A and Casanova, S and Castillo, M and Cotti, U and Coutino de Leon, S and de la Fuente, E and De Leon, C and Diaz Hernandez, R and Diaz-Velez, JC and Dingus, BL and DuVernois, MA and Ellsworth, RW and Engel, K and Fiorino, DW and Fraija, N and Garcia-Gonzalez, JA and Gerhardt, M and Gonzalez Munoz, A and Gonzalez, MM and Goodman, JA and Hampel-Arias, Z and Harding, JP and Hernandez, S and Hui, CM and Huentemeyer, P and Iriarte, A and Jardin-Blicq, A and Joshi, V and Kaufmann, S and Lara, A and Lauer, RJ and Lee, WH and Lennarz, D and Leon Vargas, H and Linnemann, JT and Luis Raya, G and Luna-Garcia, R and Lopez-Coto, R and Malone, K and Marinelli, SS and Martinez, O and Martinez-Castellanos, I and Martinez-Castro, J and Martinez-Huerta, H and Matthews, JA and Miranda-Romagnoli, P and Moreno, E and Mostafa, M and Nellen, L and Newbold, M and Nisa, MU and Noriega-Papaqui, R and Pelayo, R and Pretz, J and Perez-Perez, EG and Ren, Z and Rho, CD and Riviere, C and Rosa-Gonzalez, D and Rosenberg, M and Salesa Greus, F and Sandoval, A and Schneider, M and Schoorlemmer, H and Sinnis, G and Smith, AJ and Springer, RW and Surajbali, P and Tibolla, O and Tollefson, K and Torres, I and Ukwatta, TN and Villasenor, L and Weisgarber, T and Wisher, IG and Wood, J and Yapici, T and Zepeda, A and Zhou, H and Arcavi, I and Hosseinzadeh, G and Howell, DA and Valenti, S and McCully, C and Lipunov, VM and Gorbovskoy, ES and Tiurina, NV and Balanutsa, PV and Kuznetsov, AS and Kornilov, VG and Chazov, V and Budnev, NM and Gress, OA and Ivanov, KI and Tlatov, AG and Rebolo Lopez, R and Serra-Ricart, M and Evans, PA and Kennea, JA and Gehrels, N and Osborne, JP and Page, KL and Abeysekara, AU and Archer, A and Benbow, W and Bird, R and Brantseg, T and Bugaev, V and Cardenzana, JV and Connolly, MP and Cui, W and Falcone, A and Feng, Q and Finley, JP and Fleischhack, H and Fortson, L and Furniss, A and Griffin, S and Grube, J and Huetten, M and Hervet, O and Holder, J and Hughes, G and Humensky, TB and Johnson, CA and Kaaret, P and Kar, P and Kelley-Hoskins, N and Kertzman, M and Krause, M and Kumar, S and Lang, MJ and Lin, TTY and McArthur, S and Moriarty, P and Mukherjee, R and Nieto, D and Ong, RA and Otte, AN and Pohl, M and Popkow, A and Pueschel, E and Quinn, J and Ragan, K and Reynolds, PT and Richards, GT and Roache, E and Rulten, C and Sadeh, I and Santander, M and Sembroski, GH and Staszak, D and Trepanier, S and Tyler, J and Wakely, SP and Weinstein, A and Wilcox, P and Wilhelm, A and Williams, DA and Zitzer, B and Bellm, E and Cano, Z and Gal-Yam, A and Kann, DA and Ofek, EO and Rigault, M and Soumagnac, M},
  issn         = {1432-0746},
  journal      = {ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS},
  keywords     = {astroparticle physics,neutrinos,gamma-ray burst: general,supernovae: general,galaxies: active,X-rays: bursts,GAMMA-RAY BURSTS,GRB OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS,ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI,LARGE-AREA TELESCOPE,SWIFT-BAT SURVEY,ALL-SKY SURVEY,LUMINOSITY FUNCTION,TIDAL DISRUPTION,ALERT SYSTEM,EMISSION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {22},
  title        = {Multiwavelength follow-up of a rare IceCube neutrino multiplet},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201730620},
  volume       = {607},
  year         = {2017},
}

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