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The importance of the periconception period : immediate effects in cattle breeding and in assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer

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Abstract
In livestock breeding, the successful outcome is largely depending on the "periconception environment" which, in a narrow sense, refers to the genital tract, where gametogenesis and embryogenesis occur. During these early stages of development, gametes and embryos are known to be particularly sensitive to alterations in their microenvironment. However, as the microenvironment somehow reflects what is going on in the external world, we must widen our definition of "periconception environment" and refer to all events taking place around the time of conception, including metabolic state and health and nutrition of the dam. In modern dairy cows that have to manage an optimal reproductive performance with continued growth and high milk yield, the periconception period is particularly challenging. The metabolic priority for growth and lactation is known to generate adverse conditions hampering optimal ovarian function, oocyte maturation, and development of embryo/fetus. In addition, by using artificial reproductive technologies (ARTs), gametes and/or embryos of livestock are exposed to unnatural conditions outside the male and female genital tract. Artificial insemination, the most widely used technique, is currently yielding pregnancy rates similar to natural mating, and calves

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Chicago
Van Eetvelde, Mieke, Sonia Heras Garcia, JLMR Leroy, Ann Van Soom, and Geert Opsomer. 2017. “The Importance of the Periconception Period : Immediate Effects in Cattle Breeding and in Assisted Reproduction Such as Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer.” In Periconception in Physiology and Medicine, ed. Alireza Fazeli and William V Holt, 1014:41–68. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
APA
Van Eetvelde, M., Heras Garcia, S., Leroy, J., Van Soom, A., & Opsomer, G. (2017). The importance of the periconception period : immediate effects in cattle breeding and in assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer. In A. Fazeli & W. V. Holt (Eds.), Periconception in physiology and medicine (Vol. 1014, pp. 41–68). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Vancouver
1.
Van Eetvelde M, Heras Garcia S, Leroy J, Van Soom A, Opsomer G. The importance of the periconception period : immediate effects in cattle breeding and in assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer. In: Fazeli A, Holt WV, editors. Periconception in physiology and medicine. Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2017. p. 41–68.
MLA
Van Eetvelde, Mieke et al. “The Importance of the Periconception Period : Immediate Effects in Cattle Breeding and in Assisted Reproduction Such as Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer.” Periconception in Physiology and Medicine. Ed. Alireza Fazeli & William V Holt. Vol. 1014. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017. 41–68. Print.
@incollection{8564528,
  abstract     = {In livestock breeding, the successful outcome is largely depending on the {\textacutedbl}periconception environment{\textacutedbl} which, in a narrow sense, refers to the genital tract, where gametogenesis and embryogenesis occur. During these early stages of development, gametes and embryos are known to be particularly sensitive to alterations in their microenvironment. However, as the microenvironment somehow reflects what is going on in the external world, we must widen our definition of {\textacutedbl}periconception environment{\textacutedbl} and refer to all events taking place around the time of conception, including metabolic state and health and nutrition of the dam. In modern dairy cows that have to manage an optimal reproductive performance with continued growth and high milk yield, the periconception period is particularly challenging. The metabolic priority for growth and lactation is known to generate adverse conditions hampering optimal ovarian function, oocyte maturation, and development of embryo/fetus. In addition, by using artificial reproductive technologies (ARTs), gametes and/or embryos of livestock are exposed to unnatural conditions outside the male and female genital tract. Artificial insemination, the most widely used technique, is currently yielding pregnancy rates similar to natural mating, and calves},
  author       = {Van Eetvelde, Mieke and Heras Garcia, Sonia and Leroy, JLMR and Van Soom, Ann and Opsomer, Geert},
  booktitle    = {Periconception in physiology and medicine},
  editor       = {Fazeli, Alireza and Holt, William V},
  isbn         = {9783319624129},
  issn         = {0065-2598},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {41--68},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology},
  title        = {The importance of the periconception period : immediate effects in cattle breeding and in assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62414-3\_3},
  volume       = {1014},
  year         = {2017},
}

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