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Abstract
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, such as lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. APS can present with a variety of clinical phenotypes, including thrombosis in the veins, arteries and microvasculature as well as obstetrical complications. The pathophysiological hallmark is thrombosis, but other factors such as complement activation might be important. Prevention of thrombotic manifestations associated with APS includes lifestyle changes and, in individuals at high risk, low-dose aspirin. Prevention and treatment of thrombotic events are dependent mainly on the use of vitamin K antagonists. Immunosuppression and anticomplement therapy have been used anecdotally but have not been adequately tested. Pregnancy morbidity includes unexplained recurrent early miscarriage, fetal death and late obstetrical manifestation such as pre-eclampsia, premature birth or fetal growth restriction associated with placental insufficiency. Current treatment to prevent obstetrical morbidity is based on low-dose aspirin and/or low-molecular- weight heparin and has improved pregnancy outcomes to achieve successful live birth in > 70% of pregnancies. Although hydroxychloroquine and pravastatin might further improve pregnancy outcomes, prospective clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.
Keywords
SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS, RECURRENT PREGNANCY LOSS, GLYCOPROTEIN-I ANTIBODIES, MOLECULAR-WEIGHT HEPARIN, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL, NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA, INDUCED FETAL LOSS, INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS STATEMENT, NONCRITERIA APS MANIFESTATIONS, PRIMARY THROMBOSIS PREVENTION

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Schreiber, Karen, Savino Sciascia, Philip G de Groot, et al. “Antiphospholipid Syndrome.” NATURE REVIEWS DISEASE PRIMERS 4 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
Schreiber, K., Sciascia, S., de Groot, P. G., Devreese, K., Jacobsen, S., Ruiz-Irastorza, G., Salmon, J. E., et al. (2018). Antiphospholipid syndrome. NATURE REVIEWS DISEASE PRIMERS, 4.
Chicago author-date
Schreiber, Karen, Savino Sciascia, Philip G de Groot, Katrien Devreese, Soren Jacobsen, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Jane E Salmon, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Ora Shovman, and Beverley J Hunt. 2018. “Antiphospholipid Syndrome.” Nature Reviews Disease Primers 4.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schreiber, Karen, Savino Sciascia, Philip G de Groot, Katrien Devreese, Soren Jacobsen, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Jane E Salmon, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Ora Shovman, and Beverley J Hunt. 2018. “Antiphospholipid Syndrome.” Nature Reviews Disease Primers 4.
Vancouver
1.
Schreiber K, Sciascia S, de Groot PG, Devreese K, Jacobsen S, Ruiz-Irastorza G, et al. Antiphospholipid syndrome. NATURE REVIEWS DISEASE PRIMERS. 2018;4.
IEEE
[1]
K. Schreiber et al., “Antiphospholipid syndrome,” NATURE REVIEWS DISEASE PRIMERS, vol. 4, 2018.
@article{8563835,
  abstract     = {Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, such as lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. APS can present with a variety of clinical phenotypes, including thrombosis in the veins, arteries and microvasculature as well as obstetrical complications. The pathophysiological hallmark is thrombosis, but other factors such as complement activation might be important. Prevention of thrombotic manifestations associated with APS includes lifestyle changes and, in individuals at high risk, low-dose aspirin. Prevention and treatment of thrombotic events are dependent mainly on the use of vitamin K antagonists. Immunosuppression and anticomplement therapy have been used anecdotally but have not been adequately tested. Pregnancy morbidity includes unexplained recurrent early miscarriage, fetal death and late obstetrical manifestation such as pre-eclampsia, premature birth or fetal growth restriction associated with placental insufficiency. Current treatment to prevent obstetrical morbidity is based on low-dose aspirin and/or low-molecular- weight heparin and has improved pregnancy outcomes to achieve successful live birth in > 70% of pregnancies. Although hydroxychloroquine and pravastatin might further improve pregnancy outcomes, prospective clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.},
  articleno    = {17103},
  author       = {Schreiber, Karen and Sciascia, Savino and de Groot, Philip G and Devreese, Katrien and Jacobsen, Soren and Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo and Salmon, Jane E and Shoenfeld, Yehuda and Shovman, Ora and Hunt, Beverley J},
  issn         = {2056-676X},
  journal      = {NATURE REVIEWS DISEASE PRIMERS},
  keywords     = {SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS,RECURRENT PREGNANCY LOSS,GLYCOPROTEIN-I ANTIBODIES,MOLECULAR-WEIGHT HEPARIN,RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL,NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA,INDUCED FETAL LOSS,INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS STATEMENT,NONCRITERIA APS MANIFESTATIONS,PRIMARY THROMBOSIS PREVENTION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {19},
  title        = {Antiphospholipid syndrome},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2017.103},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2018},
}

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