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Accessory muscles of the extremities

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Abstract
Accessory muscles and variations are not uncommon at the upper and lower extremity. They are often overlooked because they are asymptomatic and present as incidental findings on imaging. However, they may present as a soft tissue swelling, thereby mimicking soft tissue tumors. Other symptoms are attributed to impingement on neurovascular structures and to exercise-related pain. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy, systematic imaging analysis, and the awareness of it are the clues to correct identification. On ultrasound, accessory muscles have a similar echotexture as other muscles, whereas the signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is similar to muscle. Because of the intrinsic contrast with the adjacent intermuscular fat, accessory muscles are best depicted on MRI without fat suppression. This article provides a short overview of the anatomy of most prevalent accessory muscles of the upper and lower limb and its potential pathogenic nature.
Keywords
accessory muscle, variants, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, PERONEUS-QUARTUS MUSCLE, ANCONEUS EPITROCHLEARIS MUSCLE, ULNAR NERVE ENTRAPMENT, DIGITI MINIMI MUSCLE, SOLEUS MUSCLE, ANOMALOUS MUSCLES, TUNNEL-SYNDROME, RARE CAUSE, VARIANTS, ANKLE

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Citation

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MLA
Vanhoenacker, Filip et al. “Accessory Muscles of the Extremities.” SEMINARS IN MUSCULOSKELETAL RADIOLOGY 22.3 (2018): 275–285. Print.
APA
Vanhoenacker, F., Desimpel, J., Mespreuve, M., & Tagliafico, A. (2018). Accessory muscles of the extremities. SEMINARS IN MUSCULOSKELETAL RADIOLOGY, 22(3), 275–285.
Chicago author-date
Vanhoenacker, Filip, Julie Desimpel, Marc Mespreuve, and Alberto Tagliafico. 2018. “Accessory Muscles of the Extremities.” Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology 22 (3): 275–285.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vanhoenacker, Filip, Julie Desimpel, Marc Mespreuve, and Alberto Tagliafico. 2018. “Accessory Muscles of the Extremities.” Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology 22 (3): 275–285.
Vancouver
1.
Vanhoenacker F, Desimpel J, Mespreuve M, Tagliafico A. Accessory muscles of the extremities. SEMINARS IN MUSCULOSKELETAL RADIOLOGY. 2018;22(3):275–85.
IEEE
[1]
F. Vanhoenacker, J. Desimpel, M. Mespreuve, and A. Tagliafico, “Accessory muscles of the extremities,” SEMINARS IN MUSCULOSKELETAL RADIOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 275–285, 2018.
@article{8563753,
  abstract     = {Accessory muscles and variations are not uncommon at the upper and lower extremity. They are often overlooked because they are asymptomatic and present as incidental findings on imaging. However, they may present as a soft tissue swelling, thereby mimicking soft tissue tumors. Other symptoms are attributed to impingement on neurovascular structures and to exercise-related pain. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy, systematic imaging analysis, and the awareness of it are the clues to correct identification. On ultrasound, accessory muscles have a similar echotexture as other muscles, whereas the signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is similar to muscle. Because of the intrinsic contrast with the adjacent intermuscular fat, accessory muscles are best depicted on MRI without fat suppression. This article provides a short overview of the anatomy of most prevalent accessory muscles of the upper and lower limb and its potential pathogenic nature.},
  author       = {Vanhoenacker, Filip and Desimpel, Julie and Mespreuve, Marc and Tagliafico, Alberto},
  isbn         = {1089-7860},
  journal      = {SEMINARS IN MUSCULOSKELETAL RADIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {accessory muscle,variants,ultrasonography,magnetic resonance imaging,PERONEUS-QUARTUS MUSCLE,ANCONEUS EPITROCHLEARIS MUSCLE,ULNAR NERVE ENTRAPMENT,DIGITI MINIMI MUSCLE,SOLEUS MUSCLE,ANOMALOUS MUSCLES,TUNNEL-SYNDROME,RARE CAUSE,VARIANTS,ANKLE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {275--285},
  title        = {Accessory muscles of the extremities},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/S-0038-1641575},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2018},
}

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