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Post-harvest interventions decrease aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize and subsequent dietary exposure in Tanzanian infants : a cluster randomised-controlled trial

(2018) WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. 11(3). p.447-458
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Abstract
A cluster randomised controlled trial was performed in three agro-ecological zones of Tanzania to evaluate the effectiveness of locally available post-harvest mitigation strategies in preventing and reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize. A total of 300 children, each from one household, were randomly selected from 30 villages (intervention: n=15). The mitigation strategies focused on hand sorting (prior to storage and use), drying maize on mat/raised platforms, proper sun drying, application of storage insecticides and de-hulling before milling. Maize sample was collected from each household at harvest (baseline) and six months after harvest. Maize intake by each child, estimated using the 24 h dietary recall technique and its body weight measured using standard procedures were taken at six months after harvest. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in the maize samples were determined using HPLC. Follow-up (six month after harvest) data were available for 261 of the 300 households (intervention: n=136). Mean concentration of aflatoxins, or fumonisins was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the intervention than in the control group: intervention effects: mu g/kg (95% confidence interval (CI)) -4.9 (-7.3,-2.5), and -405, (-647,-162), respectively. The difference corresponds to 83 and 70% for aflatoxins, and fumonisins, respectively. At the end of the intervention, aflatoxin and fumonisin estimated mean intakes were lower in the intervention than in the control group by 78 and 65%, respectively. Six months after harvest, prevalence of underweight in the intervention group was 6.7% lower (P=0.014) than in the control group. Mean weight-for-age Z-score difference between the groups was 0.57 (95% CI; 0.16,-0.98; P=0.007). Post-harvest practices are effective in preventing and reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize and subsequent dietary exposure to infants. The interventions may be applied in these and other communities with similar environmental conditions or agricultural practices that favour production of aflatoxin and fumonisins in food crops.
Keywords
exposure assessment, infant growth, mycotoxins, weight-for-age Z-scores, COMPLEMENTARY FOODS, NORTHERN TANZANIA, FUSARIUM-VERTICILLIOIDES, IMPAIRED GROWTH, WEST-AFRICA, BREAST-MILK, B-1, MYCOTOXINS, TOXICITY, MODEL

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Chicago
Kamala, Analice, M Kimanya, Bruno De Meulenaer, Patrick Kolsteren, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Geert Haesaert, K Kilango, H Magoha, B Tiisekwa, and Carl Lachat. 2018. “Post-harvest Interventions Decrease Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination in Maize and Subsequent Dietary Exposure in Tanzanian Infants : a Cluster Randomised-controlled Trial.” World Mycotoxin Journal 11 (3): 447–458.
APA
Kamala, A., Kimanya, M., De Meulenaer, B., Kolsteren, P., Jacxsens, L., Haesaert, G., Kilango, K., et al. (2018). Post-harvest interventions decrease aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize and subsequent dietary exposure in Tanzanian infants : a cluster randomised-controlled trial. WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL, 11(3), 447–458.
Vancouver
1.
Kamala A, Kimanya M, De Meulenaer B, Kolsteren P, Jacxsens L, Haesaert G, et al. Post-harvest interventions decrease aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize and subsequent dietary exposure in Tanzanian infants : a cluster randomised-controlled trial. WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. 2018;11(3):447–58.
MLA
Kamala, Analice, M Kimanya, Bruno De Meulenaer, et al. “Post-harvest Interventions Decrease Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination in Maize and Subsequent Dietary Exposure in Tanzanian Infants : a Cluster Randomised-controlled Trial.” WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL 11.3 (2018): 447–458. Print.
@article{8563298,
  abstract     = {A cluster randomised controlled trial was performed in three agro-ecological zones of Tanzania to evaluate the effectiveness of locally available post-harvest mitigation strategies in preventing and reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize. A total of 300 children, each from one household, were randomly selected from 30 villages (intervention: n=15). The mitigation strategies focused on hand sorting (prior to storage and use), drying maize on mat/raised platforms, proper sun drying, application of storage insecticides and de-hulling before milling. Maize sample was collected from each household at harvest (baseline) and six months after harvest. Maize intake by each child, estimated using the 24 h dietary recall technique and its body weight measured using standard procedures were taken at six months after harvest. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in the maize samples were determined using HPLC. Follow-up (six month after harvest) data were available for 261 of the 300 households (intervention: n=136). Mean concentration of aflatoxins, or fumonisins was significantly (P{\textlangle}0.05) lower in the intervention than in the control group: intervention effects: mu g/kg (95\% confidence interval (CI)) -4.9 (-7.3,-2.5), and -405, (-647,-162), respectively. The difference corresponds to 83 and 70\% for aflatoxins, and fumonisins, respectively. At the end of the intervention, aflatoxin and fumonisin estimated mean intakes were lower in the intervention than in the control group by 78 and 65\%, respectively. Six months after harvest, prevalence of underweight in the intervention group was 6.7\% lower (P=0.014) than in the control group. Mean weight-for-age Z-score difference between the groups was 0.57 (95\% CI; 0.16,-0.98; P=0.007). Post-harvest practices are effective in preventing and reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize and subsequent dietary exposure to infants. The interventions may be applied in these and other communities with similar environmental conditions or agricultural practices that favour production of aflatoxin and fumonisins in food crops.},
  author       = {Kamala, Analice and Kimanya, M and De Meulenaer, Bruno and Kolsteren, Patrick and Jacxsens, Liesbeth and Haesaert, Geert and Kilango, K and Magoha, H and Tiisekwa, B and Lachat, Carl},
  issn         = {1875-0710},
  journal      = {WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL},
  keyword      = {exposure assessment,infant growth,mycotoxins,weight-for-age Z-scores,COMPLEMENTARY FOODS,NORTHERN TANZANIA,FUSARIUM-VERTICILLIOIDES,IMPAIRED GROWTH,WEST-AFRICA,BREAST-MILK,B-1,MYCOTOXINS,TOXICITY,MODEL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {447--458},
  title        = {Post-harvest interventions decrease aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize and subsequent dietary exposure in Tanzanian infants : a cluster randomised-controlled trial},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/wmj2017.2234},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2018},
}

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