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Stress in wild and captive snakes : quantification, effects and the importance of management

Jitske Van Waeyenberge, Johan Aerts (UGent) , Tom Hellebuyck (UGent) , Frank Pasmans (UGent) and An Martel (UGent)
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Abstract
As in other animals, distress and impaired welfare have a deleterious effect on the mental, physical and behavioral health of snakes in the wild and in captivity. Besides anthropogenic disturbance, the availability of food and shelter, the presence of predators, and environmental factors, such as seasonality and climatological changes, are important factors that affect the stress level and subsequent welfare in wild snake populations. In captive snakes, inappropriate management is the most prominent cause of chronic stress and impaired welfare. Chronic stress can be assumed by looking at the snake's behavior, but there is need for a standardized quantification method to pin-point more accurately (chronic) stress levels. The biomarker suitable in this framework is the level of corticosterone in plasma, feces and shed skin.
Keywords
HORMONE METABOLITE CONCENTRATIONS, CORTICOSTERONE LEVELS, THAMNOPHIS-ELEGANS, TEMPERATURE, POPULATION, ANIMALS, GLUCOCORTICOIDS, RESPONSES, BEHAVIOR, NATRIX

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Chicago
Van Waeyenberge, Jitske, Johan Aerts, Tom Hellebuyck, Frank Pasmans, and An Martel. 2018. “Stress in Wild and Captive Snakes : Quantification, Effects and the Importance of Management.” Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 87 (2): 59–65.
APA
Van Waeyenberge, J., Aerts, J., Hellebuyck, T., Pasmans, F., & Martel, A. (2018). Stress in wild and captive snakes : quantification, effects and the importance of management. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT, 87(2), 59–65.
Vancouver
1.
Van Waeyenberge J, Aerts J, Hellebuyck T, Pasmans F, Martel A. Stress in wild and captive snakes : quantification, effects and the importance of management. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT. 2018;87(2):59–65.
MLA
Van Waeyenberge, Jitske, Johan Aerts, Tom Hellebuyck, et al. “Stress in Wild and Captive Snakes : Quantification, Effects and the Importance of Management.” VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT 87.2 (2018): 59–65. Print.
@article{8562368,
  abstract     = {As in other animals, distress and impaired welfare have a deleterious effect on the mental, physical and behavioral health of snakes in the wild and in captivity. Besides anthropogenic disturbance, the availability of food and shelter, the presence of predators, and environmental factors, such as seasonality and climatological changes, are important factors that affect the stress level and subsequent welfare in wild snake populations. In captive snakes, inappropriate management is the most prominent cause of chronic stress and impaired welfare. Chronic stress can be assumed by looking at the snake's behavior, but there is need for a standardized quantification method to pin-point more accurately (chronic) stress levels. The biomarker suitable in this framework is the level of corticosterone in plasma, feces and shed skin.},
  author       = {Van Waeyenberge, Jitske and Aerts, Johan and Hellebuyck, Tom and Pasmans, Frank and Martel, An},
  issn         = {0303-9021},
  journal      = {VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT},
  keywords     = {HORMONE METABOLITE CONCENTRATIONS,CORTICOSTERONE LEVELS,THAMNOPHIS-ELEGANS,TEMPERATURE,POPULATION,ANIMALS,GLUCOCORTICOIDS,RESPONSES,BEHAVIOR,NATRIX},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {59--65},
  title        = {Stress in wild and captive snakes : quantification, effects and the importance of management},
  volume       = {87},
  year         = {2018},
}

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