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Detailed structural and electrical characterization of plated crystalline silicon solar cells

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Abstract
In this paper a detailed study on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Cu/Ag plated p-type Passivated Emitter Rear Contact (PERC) silicon solar cells is reported. By comparing the cell performance of different cell groups, pseudo Fill Factor (pFF) degradation by laser-induced defects, is observed. High-power (hard) laser ablated cells exhibit a lower efficiency and faster degradation with thermal ageing. We also present structural and electrical characterization to further visualize and identify the responsible defects, which turn out to be laser-ablation-induced dislocations, penetrating the silicon emitter and base. Increasing the laser fluence gives rise to a higher dislocation density. These dislocations are further confirmed as active generation-recombination centers by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis. The laser ablation induced dislocations are unavoidable because even at insufficient laser fluence (0.48 J/cm(2)) to fully open the dielectric stack, the density is already at the level of 10(6)/cm(2). A substitutional nickel peak is also detected by DLTS, suggesting nickel diffusing into the silicon base during the sinter step. Whereas no copper levels are found in the p-type silicon base by DLTS even after thermal aging at 235 degrees C.
Keywords
PERC cells, Laser ablation, Ni/Cu/Ag plating, Defects, Reliability, Diffusion, COPPER DIFFUSION, LASER-ABLATION, NICKEL, SPECTROSCOPY, DEFECTS, IMPACT, LAYERS

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Citation

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MLA
Dang, C., et al. “Detailed Structural and Electrical Characterization of Plated Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.” SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 184, 2018, pp. 57–66.
APA
Dang, C., Labie, R., Simoen, E., & Poortmans, J. (2018). Detailed structural and electrical characterization of plated crystalline silicon solar cells. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, 184, 57–66.
Chicago author-date
Dang, C, R Labie, Eddy Simoen, and J Poortmans. 2018. “Detailed Structural and Electrical Characterization of Plated Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.” SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS 184: 57–66.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Dang, C, R Labie, Eddy Simoen, and J Poortmans. 2018. “Detailed Structural and Electrical Characterization of Plated Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.” SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS 184: 57–66.
Vancouver
1.
Dang C, Labie R, Simoen E, Poortmans J. Detailed structural and electrical characterization of plated crystalline silicon solar cells. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS. 2018;184:57–66.
IEEE
[1]
C. Dang, R. Labie, E. Simoen, and J. Poortmans, “Detailed structural and electrical characterization of plated crystalline silicon solar cells,” SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 184, pp. 57–66, 2018.
@article{8560860,
  abstract     = {In this paper a detailed study on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Cu/Ag plated p-type Passivated Emitter Rear Contact (PERC) silicon solar cells is reported. By comparing the cell performance of different cell groups, pseudo Fill Factor (pFF) degradation by laser-induced defects, is observed. High-power (hard) laser ablated cells exhibit a lower efficiency and faster degradation with thermal ageing. We also present structural and electrical characterization to further visualize and identify the responsible defects, which turn out to be laser-ablation-induced dislocations, penetrating the silicon emitter and base. Increasing the laser fluence gives rise to a higher dislocation density. These dislocations are further confirmed as active generation-recombination centers by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis. The laser ablation induced dislocations are unavoidable because even at insufficient laser fluence (0.48 J/cm(2)) to fully open the dielectric stack, the density is already at the level of 10(6)/cm(2). A substitutional nickel peak is also detected by DLTS, suggesting nickel diffusing into the silicon base during the sinter step. Whereas no copper levels are found in the p-type silicon base by DLTS even after thermal aging at 235 degrees C.},
  author       = {Dang, C and Labie, R and Simoen, Eddy and Poortmans, J},
  issn         = {0927-0248},
  journal      = {SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS},
  keywords     = {PERC cells,Laser ablation,Ni/Cu/Ag plating,Defects,Reliability,Diffusion,COPPER DIFFUSION,LASER-ABLATION,NICKEL,SPECTROSCOPY,DEFECTS,IMPACT,LAYERS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {57--66},
  title        = {Detailed structural and electrical characterization of plated crystalline silicon solar cells},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.04.016},
  volume       = {184},
  year         = {2018},
}

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