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Reduction of moisture sensitivity of PbS quantum dot solar cells by incorporation of reduced graphene oxide

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Abstract
PbS nanocrystals are an important narrow-gap material for solar cells and photodetectors. Nevertheless, their application may be limited because device performance can be affected by atmospheric conditions. Indeed, the presence of oxygen and/or water can degrade the active layers, possibly leading to device failure. Strategies to address this issue are therefore actively explored. Here we report a solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar cell, consisting of a PbS-silane functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PbS-rGO) layer on top of the PbS absorber film, which enhances device stability, especially when the solar cells are exposed to moisture. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) measurements demonstrate a slower degradation under continuous illumination for solar cells with PbS-rGO. When storing the samples under saturated water vapor, differences are even more remarkable: with PbS-rGO the solar cells essentially maintain their initial PCE, while the PCE of the PbS reference devices is reduced by 50% after 5 days. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal the damage to the PbS films and the formation of PbSOX crystals in the PbS reference devices. Such crystals are not observed in the PbS-rGO devices, further supporting the importance of the PbSrGO barrier layer.
Keywords
Nanocrystals, Reduced graphene oxide, Photovoltaics, Stability, Moisture, PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES, LANGMUIR MONOLAYERS, PEROVSKITE FILMS, AIR-STABILITY, EFFICIENCY, HUMIDITY, SOLIDS

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MLA
Martín-García, Beatriz et al. “Reduction of Moisture Sensitivity of PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Incorporation of Reduced Graphene Oxide.” SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS 183 (2018): 1–7. Print.
APA
Martín-García, B., Bi, Y., Prato, M., Spirito, D., Krahne, R., Konstantatos, G., & Moreels, I. (2018). Reduction of moisture sensitivity of PbS quantum dot solar cells by incorporation of reduced graphene oxide. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, 183, 1–7.
Chicago author-date
Martín-García, Beatriz, Yu Bi, Mirko Prato, Davide Spirito, Roman Krahne, Gerasimos Konstantatos, and Iwan Moreels. 2018. “Reduction of Moisture Sensitivity of PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Incorporation of Reduced Graphene Oxide.” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 183: 1–7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Martín-García, Beatriz, Yu Bi, Mirko Prato, Davide Spirito, Roman Krahne, Gerasimos Konstantatos, and Iwan Moreels. 2018. “Reduction of Moisture Sensitivity of PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Incorporation of Reduced Graphene Oxide.” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 183: 1–7.
Vancouver
1.
Martín-García B, Bi Y, Prato M, Spirito D, Krahne R, Konstantatos G, et al. Reduction of moisture sensitivity of PbS quantum dot solar cells by incorporation of reduced graphene oxide. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS. 2018;183:1–7.
IEEE
[1]
B. Martín-García et al., “Reduction of moisture sensitivity of PbS quantum dot solar cells by incorporation of reduced graphene oxide,” SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 183, pp. 1–7, 2018.
@article{8560610,
  abstract     = {PbS nanocrystals are an important narrow-gap material for solar cells and photodetectors. Nevertheless, their application may be limited because device performance can be affected by atmospheric conditions. Indeed, the presence of oxygen and/or water can degrade the active layers, possibly leading to device failure. Strategies to address this issue are therefore actively explored. Here we report a solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar cell, consisting of a PbS-silane functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PbS-rGO) layer on top of the PbS absorber film, which enhances device stability, especially when the solar cells are exposed to moisture. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) measurements demonstrate a slower degradation under continuous illumination for solar cells with PbS-rGO. When storing the samples under saturated water vapor, differences are even more remarkable: with PbS-rGO the solar cells essentially maintain their initial PCE, while the PCE of the PbS reference devices is reduced by 50% after 5 days. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal the damage to the PbS films and the formation of PbSOX crystals in the PbS reference devices. Such crystals are not observed in the PbS-rGO devices, further supporting the importance of the PbSrGO barrier layer.},
  author       = {Martín-García, Beatriz and Bi, Yu and Prato, Mirko and Spirito, Davide and Krahne, Roman and Konstantatos, Gerasimos and Moreels, Iwan},
  issn         = {0927-0248},
  journal      = {SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS},
  keywords     = {Nanocrystals,Reduced graphene oxide,Photovoltaics,Stability,Moisture,PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES,LANGMUIR MONOLAYERS,PEROVSKITE FILMS,AIR-STABILITY,EFFICIENCY,HUMIDITY,SOLIDS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {1--7},
  title        = {Reduction of moisture sensitivity of PbS quantum dot solar cells by incorporation of reduced graphene oxide},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.04.005},
  volume       = {183},
  year         = {2018},
}

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