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Differential effects of sustained and transient effort triggered by reward : a combined EEG and pupillometry study

Mariam Kostandyan (UGent) , Klaas Bombeke (UGent) , Thomas Carsten (UGent) , Ruth Krebs (UGent) , Wim Notebaert (UGent) and Nico Böhler (UGent)
(2019) NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA. 123. p.116-130
Author
Organization
Project
“Money for nothing”? Dissociating pro-active, re-active, and automatic reward influences on conflict processing and response inhibition
Project
REMOTIVATE (Reward revisited: Towards a comprehensive understanding of motivational influences on human cognition)
Abstract
In instrumental task contexts, incentive manipulations such as posting reward on successful performance usually trigger increased effort, which is signified by effort markers like increased pupil size. Yet, it is not fully clear under which circumstances incentives really promote performance, and which role effort plays therein. In the present study, we compared two schemes of associating reward with a Flanker task, while simultaneously acquiring electroencephalography (EEG) and pupillometry data in order to explore the contribution of effort-related processes. In Experiment 1, reward was administered in a block-based fashion, with series of targets in pure reward and no-reward blocks. The results imply increased sustained effort in the reward blocks, as reflected in particular in sustained increased pupil size. Yet, this was not accompanied by a behavioral benefit, suggesting a failure of translating increased effort into a behavioral pay-off. In Experiment 2, we introduced trial-based cues in order to also promote transient preparatory effort application, which indeed led to a behavioral benefit. Again, we observed a sustained pupil-size increase, but also transient ones. Consistent with this, the EEG data of Experiment 2 indicated increased transient preparatory effort preceding target onset, as well as reward modulations of target processing that arose earlier than in Experiment 1. Jointly, our results indicate that incentive-triggered effort can operate on different time-scales, and that, at least for the current task, its transient (and largely preparatory) form is critical for achieving a behavioral benefit, which may relate to the temporal dynamics of the catecholaminergic systems.
Keywords
sustained pupil size, transient pupil size, reward, effort, EEG, CNV

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Citation

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MLA
Kostandyan, Mariam et al. “Differential Effects of Sustained and Transient Effort Triggered by Reward : a Combined EEG and Pupillometry Study.” NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA 123 (2019): 116–130. Print.
APA
Kostandyan, M., Bombeke, K., Carsten, T., Krebs, R., Notebaert, W., & Böhler, N. (2019). Differential effects of sustained and transient effort triggered by reward : a combined EEG and pupillometry study. NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA, 123, 116–130.
Chicago author-date
Kostandyan, Mariam, Klaas Bombeke, Thomas Carsten, Ruth Krebs, Wim Notebaert, and Nico Böhler. 2019. “Differential Effects of Sustained and Transient Effort Triggered by Reward : a Combined EEG and Pupillometry Study.” Neuropsychologia 123: 116–130.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kostandyan, Mariam, Klaas Bombeke, Thomas Carsten, Ruth Krebs, Wim Notebaert, and Nico Böhler. 2019. “Differential Effects of Sustained and Transient Effort Triggered by Reward : a Combined EEG and Pupillometry Study.” Neuropsychologia 123: 116–130.
Vancouver
1.
Kostandyan M, Bombeke K, Carsten T, Krebs R, Notebaert W, Böhler N. Differential effects of sustained and transient effort triggered by reward : a combined EEG and pupillometry study. NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA. Elsevier; 2019;123:116–30.
IEEE
[1]
M. Kostandyan, K. Bombeke, T. Carsten, R. Krebs, W. Notebaert, and N. Böhler, “Differential effects of sustained and transient effort triggered by reward : a combined EEG and pupillometry study,” NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA, vol. 123, pp. 116–130, 2019.
@article{8560532,
  abstract     = {In instrumental task contexts, incentive manipulations such as posting reward on successful performance usually trigger increased effort, which is signified by effort markers like increased pupil size. Yet, it is not fully clear under which circumstances incentives really promote performance, and which role effort plays therein. In the present study, we compared two schemes of associating reward with a Flanker task, while simultaneously acquiring electroencephalography (EEG) and pupillometry data in order to explore the contribution of effort-related processes. In Experiment 1, reward was administered in a block-based fashion, with series of targets in pure reward and no-reward blocks. The results imply increased sustained effort in the reward blocks, as reflected in particular in sustained increased pupil size. Yet, this was not accompanied by a behavioral benefit, suggesting a failure of translating increased effort into a behavioral pay-off. In Experiment 2, we introduced trial-based cues in order to also promote transient preparatory effort application, which indeed led to a behavioral benefit. Again, we observed a sustained pupil-size increase, but also transient ones. Consistent with this, the EEG data of Experiment 2 indicated increased transient preparatory effort preceding target onset, as well as reward modulations of target processing that arose earlier than in Experiment 1. Jointly, our results indicate that incentive-triggered effort can operate on different time-scales, and that, at least for the current task, its transient (and largely preparatory) form is critical for achieving a behavioral benefit, which may relate to the temporal dynamics of the catecholaminergic systems.},
  author       = {Kostandyan, Mariam and Bombeke, Klaas and Carsten, Thomas and Krebs, Ruth and Notebaert, Wim and Böhler, Nico},
  issn         = {0028-3932},
  journal      = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
  keywords     = {sustained pupil size,transient pupil size,reward,effort,EEG,CNV},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {116--130},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  title        = {Differential effects of sustained and transient effort triggered by reward : a combined EEG and pupillometry study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.04.032},
  volume       = {123},
  year         = {2019},
}

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