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Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants

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Abstract
Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group-and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.
Keywords
Blood pressure, hypertension, population health, global health, non-communicable disease, HEALTH EXAMINATION SURVEYS, HYPERTENSION PREVALENCE, SECULAR TRENDS, UNITED-STATES, ARTERIAL-HYPERTENSION, SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS, URBAN COMMUNITIES, POTASSIUM INTAKE, GLOBAL TRENDS, SODIUM-INTAKE

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MLA
Zhou, Bin et al. “Contributions of Mean and Shape of Blood Pressure Distribution to Worldwide Trends and Variations in Raised Blood Pressure : a Pooled Analysis of 1018 Population-based Measurement Studies with 88.6 Million Participants.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 47.3 (2018): 872–883. Print.
APA
Zhou, Bin, Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bixby, H., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., Taddei, C., et al. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, 47(3), 872–883.
Chicago author-date
Zhou, Bin, James Bentham, Mariachiara Di Cesare, Honor Bixby, Goodarz Danaei, Kaveh Hajifathalian, Cristina Taddei, et al. 2018. “Contributions of Mean and Shape of Blood Pressure Distribution to Worldwide Trends and Variations in Raised Blood Pressure : a Pooled Analysis of 1018 Population-based Measurement Studies with 88.6 Million Participants.” International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (3): 872–883.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zhou, Bin, James Bentham, Mariachiara Di Cesare, Honor Bixby, Goodarz Danaei, Kaveh Hajifathalian, Cristina Taddei, Rodrigo M Carrillo-Larco, Shirin Djalalinia, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Charles Lugero, Niloofar Peykari, Wan Zhu Zhang, James Bennett, Ver Bilano, Gretchen A Stevens, Melanie J Cowan, Leanne M Riley, Zhengming Chen, Ian R Hambleton, Rod T Jackson, Andre Pascal Kengne, Young-Ho Khang, Avula Laxmaiah, Jing Liu, Reza Malekzadeh, Hannelore K Neuhauser, Maroje Sorić, Gregor Starc, Johan Sundström, Mark Woodward, Majid Ezzati, Leandra Abarca-Gómez, Ziad A Abdeen, Niveen M Abu-Rmeileh, Benjamin Acosta-Cazares, Robert J Adams, Wichai Aekplakorn, Kaosar Afsana, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Charles Agyemang, Noor Ani Ahmad, Alireza Ahmadvand, Wolfgang Ahrens, Kamel Ajlouni, Nazgul Akhtaeva, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Mohamed M Ali, Osman Ali, Ala’a Alkerwi, Eman Aly, Deepak N Amarapurkar, Philippe Amouyel, Antoinette Amuzu, Lars Bo Andersen, Sigmund A Anderssen, Lars H Ängquist, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Daniel Ansong, Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri, Joana Araújo, Inger Ariansen, Tahir Aris, Nimmathota Arlappa, Dominique Arveiler, Krishna K Aryal, Thor Aspelund, Felix K Assah, Maria Cecília F Assunção, Mária Avdicová, Ana Azevedo, Fereidoun Azizi, Bontha V Babu, Suhad Bahijri, Nagalla Balakrishna, Mohamed Bamoshmoosh, Maciej Banach, Piotr Bandosz, José R Banegas, Carlo M Barbagallo, Alberto Barceló, Amina Barkat, Aluisio J D Barros, Mauro V Barros, Iqbal Bata, Anwar M Batieha, Assembekov Batyrbek, Louise A Baur, Robert Beaglehole, Habiba Ben Romdhane, Mikhail Benet, Lowell S Benson, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Gailute Bernotiene, Heloisa Bettiol, Aroor Bhagyalaxmi, Sumit Bharadwaj, Santosh K Bhargava, Yufang Bi, Mukharram Bikbov, Bihungum Bista, Peter Bjerregaard, Espen Bjertness, Marius B Bjertness, Cecilia Björkelund, Anneke Blokstra, Simona Bo, Martin Bobak, Heiner Boeing, Jose G Boggia, Carlos P Boissonnet, Vanina Bongard, Rossana Borchini, Pascal Bovet, Lutgart Braeckman, Imperia Brajkovich, Francesco Branca, Juergen Breckenkamp, Hermann Brenner, Lizzy M Brewster, Graziella Bruno, H B(as) Bueno-de-Mesquita, Anna Bugge, Con Burns, Michael Bursztyn, Antonio Cabrera de León, Joseph Cacciottolo, Hui Cai, Christine Cameron, Günay Can, Ana Paula C Cândido, Vincenzo Capuano, Viviane C Cardoso, Axel C Carlsson, Maria J Carvalho, Felipe F Casanueva, Juan-Pablo Casas, Carmelo A Caserta, Snehalatha Chamukuttan, Angelique W Chan, Queenie Chan, Himanshu K Chaturvedi, Nishi Chaturvedi, Chien-Jen Chen, Fangfang Chen, Huashuai Chen, Shuohua Chen, Zhengming Chen, Ching-Yu Cheng, Imane Cherkaoui Dekkaki, Angela Chetrit, Arnaud Chiolero, Shu-Ti Chiou, Adela Chirita-Emandi, María-Dolores Chirlaque, Belong Cho, Yumi Cho, Diego G Christofaro, Jerzy Chudek, Renata Cifkova, Eliza Cinteza, Frank Claessens, Els Clays, Hans Concin, Cyrus Cooper, Rachel Cooper, Tara C Coppinger, Simona Costanzo, Dominique Cottel, Chris Cowell, Cora L Craig, Ana B Crujeiras, Juan J Cruz, Graziella D’Arrigo, Eleonora d’ Orsi, Jean Dallongeville, Albertino Damasceno, Goodarz Danaei, Rachel Dankner, Thomas M Dantoft, Luc Dauchet, Kairat Davletov, Gui De Backer, Dirk De Bacquer, Giovanni de Gaetano, Stefaan De Henauw, Paula Duarte de Oliveira, Delphine De Smedt, Mohan Deepa, Abbas Dehghan, Hélène Delisle, Valérie Deschamps, Klodian Dhana, Augusto F Di Castelnuovo, Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa, Alejandro Diaz, Ty T Dickerson, Shirin Djalalinia, Ha T P Do, Chiara Donfrancesco, Silvana P Donoso, Angela Döring, Maria Dorobantu, Kouamelan Doua, Wojciech Drygas, Virginija Dulskiene, Aleksandar Džakula, Vilnis Dzerve, Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Robert Eggertsen, Ulf Ekelund, Jalila El Ati, Paul Elliott, Roberto Elosua, Rajiv T Erasmus, Cihangir Erem, Louise Eriksen, Johan G Eriksson, Jorge Escobedo-de la Peña, Alun Evans, David Faeh, Caroline H Fall, Farshad Farzadfar, Francisco J Felix-Redondo, Trevor S Ferguson, Romulo A Fernandes, Daniel Fernández-Bergés, Daniel Ferrante, Marika Ferrari, Catterina Ferreccio, Jean Ferrieres, Joseph D Finn, Krista Fischer, Bernhard Föger, Leng Huat Foo, Ann-Sofie Forslund, Maria Forsner, Heba M Fouad, Damian K Francis, Maria do Carmo Franco, Oscar H Franco, Guillermo Frontera, Flavio D Fuchs, Sandra C Fuchs, Yuki Fujita, Takuro Furusawa, Zbigniew Gaciong, Fabio Galvano, Manoli Garcia-de-la-Hera, Dickman Gareta, Sarah P Garnett, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Magda Gasull, Louise Gates, Johanna M Geleijnse, Anoosheh Ghasemian, Anup Ghimire, Simona Giampaoli, Francesco Gianfagna, Tiffany K Gill, Jonathan Giovannelli, Rebecca A Goldsmith, Helen Gonçalves, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Juan P González-Rivas, Mariano Bonet Gorbea, Frederic Gottrand, Sidsel Graff-Iversen, Dušan Grafnetter, Aneta Grajda, Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Ronald D Gregor, Tomasz Grodzicki, Anders Grøntved, Giuseppe Grosso, Gabriella Gruden, Vera Grujic, Dongfeng Gu, Ong Peng Guan, Elias F Gudmundsson, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ramiro Guerrero, Idris Guessous, Andre L Guimaraes, Martin C Gulliford, Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir, Marc Gunter, Prakash C Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Oye Gureje, Beata Gurzkowska, Laura Gutierrez, Felix Gutzwiller, Farzad Hadaegh, Jytte Halkjær, Ian R Hambleton, Rebecca Hardy, Rachakulla Hari Kumar, Jun Hata, Alison J Hayes, Jiang He, Yuna He, Marleen Elisabeth, Ana Henriques, Leticia Hernandez Cadena, Sauli Herrala, Ramin Heshmat, Ilpo Tapani Hihtaniemi, Sai Yin Ho, Suzanne C Ho, Michael Hobbs, Albert Hofman, Gonul Horasan Dinc, Andrea R V R Horimoto, Claudia M Hormiga, Bernardo L Horta, Leila Houti, Christina Howitt, Thein Thein Htay, Aung Soe Htet, Maung Maung Than Htike, Yonghua Hu, José María Huerta, Martijn Huisman, Abdullatif S Husseini, Inge Huybrechts, Nahla Hwalla, Licia Iacoviello, Anna G Iannone, Mohsen M Ibrahim, Norazizah Ibrahim Wong, Nayu Ikeda, M Arfan Ikram, Vilma E Irazola, Muhammad Islam, Aziz al-Safi Ismail, Vanja Ivkovic, Masanori Iwasaki, Rod T Jackson, Jeremy M Jacobs, Hashem Jaddou, Tazeen Jafar, Konrad Jamrozik, Imre Janszky, Grazyna Jasienska, Ana Jelaković, Bojan Jelaković, Garry Jennings, Seung-lyeal Jeong, Chao Qiang Jiang, Michel Joffres, Mattias Johansson, Jari J Jokelainen, Jost B Jonas, Torben Jørgensen, Pradeep Joshi, Jacek Jóźwiak, Anne Juolevi, Gregor Jurak, Vesna Jureša, Rudolf Kaaks, Anthony Kafatos, Eero O Kajantie, Ofra Kalter-Leibovici, Nor Azmi Kamaruddin, Khem B Karki, Amir Kasaeian, Joanne Katz, Jussi Kauhanen, Prabhdeep Kaur, Maryam Kavousi, Gyulli Kazakbaeva, Ulrich Keil, Lital Keinan Boker, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Roya Kelishadi, Han C G Kemper, Andre P Kengne, Alina Kerimkulova, Mathilde Kersting, Timothy Key, Yousef Saleh Khader, Davood Khalili, Young-Ho Khang, Mohammad Khateeb, Kay-Tee Khaw, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Stefan Kiechl, Japhet Killewo, Jeongseon Kim, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jurate Klumbiene, Michael Knoflach, Elin Kolle, Patrick Kolsteren, Paul Korrovits, Seppo Koskinen, Katsuyasu Kouda, Sudhir Kowlessur, Slawomir Koziel, Susi Kriemler, Peter Lund Kristensen, Steinar Krokstad, Daan Kromhout, Herculina S Kruger, Ruzena Kubinova, Renata Kuciene, Diana Kuh, Urho M Kujala, Zbigniew Kulaga, R Krishna Kumar, Pawel Kurjata, Yadlapalli S Kusuma, Kari Kuulasmaa, Catherine Kyobutungi, Tiina Laatikainen, Carl Lachat, Tai Hing Lam, Orlando Landrove, Vera Lanska, Georg Lappas, Bagher Larijani, Lars E Laugsand, Avula Laxmaiah, Khanh Le Nguyen Bao, Tuyen D Le, Catherine Leclercq, Jeannette Lee, Jeonghee Lee, Terho Lehtimäki, Luz M León-Muñoz, Naomi S Levitt, Yanping Li, Christa L Lilly, Wei-Yen Lim, M Fernanda Lima-Costa, Hsien-Ho Lin, Xu Lin, Lars Lind, Allan Linneberg, Lauren Lissner, Mieczyslaw Litwin, Jing Liu, Roberto Lorbeer, Paulo A Lotufo, José Eugenio Lozano, Dalia Luksiene, Annamari Lundqvist, Nuno Lunet, Per Lytsy, Guansheng Ma, Jun Ma, George L L Machado-Coelho, Suka Machi, Stefania Maggi, Dianna J Magliano, Emmanuella Magriplis, Marjeta Majer, Marcia Makdisse, Reza Malekzadeh, Rahul Malhotra, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao, Sofia Malyutina, Yannis Manios, Jim I Mann, Enzo Manzato, Paula Margozzini, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Larissa Pruner Marques, Jaume Marrugat, Reynaldo Martorell, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Alicia Matijasevich, Tandi E Matsha, Jean Claude N Mbanya, Anselmo J Mc Donald Posso, Shelly R McFarlane, Stephen T McGarvey, Stela McLachlan, Rachael M McLean, Scott B McLean, Breige A McNulty, Sounnia Mediene-Benchekor, Jurate Medzioniene, Aline Meirhaeghe, Christa Meisinger, Ana Maria B Menezes, Geetha R Menon, Indrapal I Meshram, Andres Metspalu, Haakon E Meyer, Jie Mi, Kairit Mikkel, Jody C Miller, Cláudia S Minderico, Juan Francisco, J Jaime Miranda, Erkin Mirrakhimov, Marjeta Mišigoj-Durakovic, Pietro A Modesti, Mostafa K Mohamed, Kazem Mohammad, Noushin Mohammadifard, Viswanathan Mohan, Salim Mohanna, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Line T Møllehave, Niels C Møller, Dénes Molnár, Amirabbas Momenan, Charles K Mondo, Kotsedi Daniel K Monyeki, Jin Soo Moon, Leila B Moreira, Alain Morejon, Luis A Moreno, Karen Morgan, George Moschonis, Malgorzata Mossakowska, Aya Mostafa, Jorge Mota, Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh, Jorge Motta, Kelias P Msyamboza, Thet Thet Mu, Maria L Muiesan, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Neil Murphy, Jaakko Mursu, Vera Musil, Iraj Nabipour, Gabriele Nagel, Balkish M Naidu, Harunobu Nakamura, Jana Námešná, Ei Ei K Nang, Vinay B Nangia, Sameer Narake, Matthias Nauck, Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz, Ndeye Coumba Ndiaye, William A Neal, Ilona Nenko, Martin Neovius, Flavio Nervi, Hannelore K Neuhauser, Chung T Nguyen, Nguyen D Nguyen, Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Quang V Nguyen, Ramfis E Nieto-Martínez, Teemu J Niiranen, Guang Ning, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Sania Nishtar, Marianna Noale, Oscar A Noboa, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Teresa Norat, Davide Noto, Mohannad Al Nsour, Dermot O’Reilly, Eiji Oda, Glenn Oehlers, Kyungwon Oh, Kumiko Ohara, Maria Teresa A Olinto, Isabel O Oliveira, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Altan Onat, Sok King Ong, Lariane M Ono, Pedro Ordunez, Rui Ornelas, Clive Osmond, Sergej M Ostojic, Afshin Ostovar, Johanna A Otero, Kim Overvad, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Fred Michel Paccaud, Cristina Padez, Elena Pahomova, Andrzej Pajak, Domenico Palli, Luigi Palmieri, Wen-Harn Pan, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Francesco Panza, Dimitrios Papandreou, Soon-Woo Park, Winsome R Parnell, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Nikhil D Patel, Ivan Pecin, Mangesh S Pednekar, Nasheeta Peer, Petra H Peeters, Sergio Viana Peixoto, Markku Peltonen, Alexandre C Pereira, Annette Peters, Astrid Petersmann, Janina Petkeviciene, Niloofar Peykari, Son Thai Pham, Iris Pigeot, Hynek Pikhart, Aida Pilav, Lorenza Pilotto, Freda Pitakaka, Aleksandra Piwonska, Pedro Plans-Rubió, Ozren Polašek, Miquel Porta, Marileen L P Portegies, Akram Pourshams, Hossein Poustchi, Rajendra Pradeepa, Mathur Prashant, Jacqueline F Price, Jardena J Puder, Maria Puiu, Margus Punab, Radwan F Qasrawi, Mostafa Qorbani, Tran Quoc Bao, Ivana Radic, Ricardas Radisauskas, Mahfuzar Rahman, Olli Raitakari, Manu Raj, Sudha Ramachandra Rao, Ambady Ramachandran, Elisabete Ramos, Lekhraj Rampal, Sanjay Rampal, Daniel A Rangel Reina, Josep Redon, Paul Ferdinand M Reganit, Robespierre Ribeiro, Elio Riboli, Fernando Rigo, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Raphael M Ritti-Dias, Sian M Robinson, Cynthia Robitaille, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, María del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Laura A Rodríguez-Villamizar, Rosalba Rojas-Martinez, Dora Romaguera, Kimmo Ronkainen, Annika Rosengren, Joel G R Roy, Adolfo Rubinstein, Blanca Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Marcin Rutkowski, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Harshpal S Sachdev, Olfa Saidi, Sibel Sakarya, Benoit Salanave, Eduardo Salazar Martinez, Diego Salmerón, Veikko Salomaa, Jukka T Salonen, Massimo Salvetti, Jose Sánchez-Abanto, Susana Sans, Diana A Santos, Ina S Santos, Renata Nunes dos Santos, Rute Santos, Jouko L Saramies, Luis B Sardinha, Giselle Sarganas, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Kai-Uwe Saum, Savvas Savva, Marcia Scazufca, Herman Schargrodsky, Sabine Schipf, Carsten O Schmidt, Ben Schöttker, Constance Schultsz, Aletta E Schutte, Aye Aye Sein, Abhijit Sen, Idowu O Senbanjo, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Sanjib K Sharma, Jonathan E Shaw, Kenji Shibuya, Dong Wook Shin, Youchan Shin, Khairil Si-Ramlee, Rosalynn Siantar, Abla M Sibai, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mary Simon, Judith Simons, Leon A Simons, Michael Sjöström, Sine Skovbjerg, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Przemyslaw Slusarczyk, Liam Smeeth, Margaret C Smith, Marieke B Snijder, Hung-Kwan So, Eugène Sobngwi, Stefan Söderberg, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Emily Sonestedt, Yi Song, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Maroje Soric, Charles Sossa Jérome, Aicha Soumare, Jan A Staessen, Gregor Starc, Maria G Stathopoulou, Bill Stavreski, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Peter Stehle, Aryeh D Stein, George S Stergiou, Jochanan Stessman, Jutta Stieber, Doris Stöckl, Tanja Stocks, Jakub Stokwiszewski, Karien Stronks, Maria Wany Strufaldi, Chien-An Sun, Johan Sundström, Yn-Tz Sung, Paibul Suriyawongpaisal, Rody G Sy, E Shyong Tai, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Eng Joo Tan, Xun Tang, Frank Tanser, Yong Tao, Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh, 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of Mean and Shape of Blood Pressure Distribution to Worldwide Trends and Variations in Raised Blood Pressure : a Pooled Analysis of 1018 Population-based Measurement Studies with 88.6 Million Participants.” International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (3): 872–883.
Vancouver
1.
Zhou B, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Bixby H, Danaei G, Hajifathalian K, et al. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2018;47(3):872–83.
IEEE
[1]
B. Zhou et al., “Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 872–883, 2018.
@article{8560518,
  abstract     = {Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. 
Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group-and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. 
Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. 
Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.},
  author       = {Zhou, Bin and Bentham, James and Di Cesare, Mariachiara and Bixby, Honor and Danaei, Goodarz and Hajifathalian, Kaveh and Taddei, Cristina and Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M and Djalalinia, Shirin and Khatibzadeh, Shahab and Lugero, Charles and Peykari, Niloofar and Zhang, Wan Zhu and Bennett, James and Bilano, Ver and Stevens, Gretchen A and Cowan, Melanie J and Riley, Leanne M and Chen, Zhengming and Hambleton, Ian R and Jackson, Rod T and Kengne, Andre Pascal and Khang, Young-Ho and Laxmaiah, Avula and Liu, Jing and Malekzadeh, Reza and Neuhauser, Hannelore K and Sorić, Maroje and Starc, Gregor and Sundström, Johan and Woodward, Mark and Ezzati, Majid and Abarca-Gómez, Leandra and Abdeen, Ziad A and Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M and Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin and Adams, Robert J and Aekplakorn, Wichai and Afsana, Kaosar and Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A and Agyemang, Charles and Ahmad, Noor Ani and Ahmadvand, Alireza and Ahrens, Wolfgang and Ajlouni, Kamel and Akhtaeva, Nazgul and Al-Raddadi, Rajaa and Ali, Mohamed M and Ali, Osman and Alkerwi, Ala'a and Aly, Eman and Amarapurkar, Deepak N and Amouyel, Philippe and Amuzu, Antoinette and Andersen, Lars Bo and Anderssen, Sigmund A and Ängquist, Lars H and Anjana, Ranjit Mohan and Ansong, Daniel and Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer and Araújo, Joana and Ariansen, Inger and Aris, Tahir and Arlappa, Nimmathota and Arveiler, Dominique and Aryal, Krishna K and Aspelund, Thor and Assah, Felix K and Assunção, Maria Cecília F and Avdicová, Mária and Azevedo, Ana and Azizi, Fereidoun and Babu, Bontha V and Bahijri, Suhad and Balakrishna, Nagalla and Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed and Banach, Maciej and Bandosz, Piotr and Banegas, José R and Barbagallo, Carlo M and Barceló, Alberto and Barkat, Amina and Barros, Aluisio J D and Barros, Mauro V and Bata, Iqbal and Batieha, Anwar M and Batyrbek, Assembekov and Baur, Louise A and Beaglehole, Robert and Romdhane, Habiba Ben and Benet, Mikhail and Benson, Lowell S and Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio and Bernotiene, Gailute and Bettiol, Heloisa and Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor and Bharadwaj, Sumit and Bhargava, Santosh K and Bi, Yufang and Bikbov, Mukharram and Bista, Bihungum and Bjerregaard, Peter and Bjertness, Espen and Bjertness, Marius B and Björkelund, Cecilia and Blokstra, Anneke and Bo, Simona and Bobak, Martin and Boeing, Heiner and Boggia, Jose G and Boissonnet, Carlos P and Bongard, Vanina and Borchini, Rossana and Bovet, Pascal and Braeckman, Lutgart and Brajkovich, Imperia and Branca, Francesco and Breckenkamp, Juergen and Brenner, Hermann and Brewster, Lizzy M and Bruno, Graziella and Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as) and Bugge, Anna and Burns, Con and Bursztyn, Michael and de León, Antonio Cabrera and Cacciottolo, Joseph and Cai, Hui and Cameron, Christine and Can, Günay and Cândido, Ana Paula C and Capuano, Vincenzo and Cardoso, Viviane C and Carlsson, Axel C and Carvalho, Maria J and Casanueva, Felipe F and Casas, Juan-Pablo and Caserta, Carmelo A and Chamukuttan, Snehalatha and Chan, Angelique W and Chan, Queenie and Chaturvedi, Himanshu K and Chaturvedi, Nishi and Chen, Chien-Jen and Chen, Fangfang and Chen, Huashuai and Chen, Shuohua and Chen, Zhengming and Cheng, Ching-Yu and Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui and Chetrit, Angela and Chiolero, Arnaud and Chiou, Shu-Ti and Chirita-Emandi, Adela and Chirlaque, María-Dolores and Cho, Belong and Cho, Yumi and Christofaro, Diego G and Chudek, Jerzy and Cifkova, Renata and Cinteza, Eliza and Claessens, Frank and Clays, Els and Concin, Hans and Cooper, Cyrus and Cooper, Rachel and Coppinger, Tara C and Costanzo, Simona and Cottel, Dominique and Cowell, Chris and Craig, Cora L and Crujeiras, Ana B and Cruz, Juan J and D'Arrigo, Graziella and d'Orsi, Eleonora and Dallongeville, Jean and Damasceno, Albertino and Danaei, Goodarz and Dankner, Rachel and Dantoft, Thomas M and Dauchet, Luc and Davletov, Kairat and De Backer, Gui and De Bacquer, Dirk and de Gaetano, Giovanni and De Henauw, Stefaan and de Oliveira, Paula Duarte and De Smedt, Delphine and Deepa, Mohan and Dehghan, Abbas and Delisle, Hélène and Deschamps, Valérie and Dhana, Klodian and Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F and Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares and Diaz, Alejandro and Dickerson, Ty T and Djalalinia, Shirin and Do, Ha T P and Donfrancesco, Chiara and Donoso, Silvana P and Döring, Angela and Dorobantu, Maria and Doua, Kouamelan and Drygas, Wojciech and Dulskiene, Virginija and Džakula, Aleksandar and Dzerve, Vilnis and Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta and Eggertsen, Robert and Ekelund, Ulf and El Ati, Jalila and Elliott, Paul and Elosua, Roberto and Erasmus, Rajiv T and Erem, Cihangir and Eriksen, Louise and Eriksson, Johan G and Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge and Evans, Alun and Faeh, David and Fall, Caroline H and Farzadfar, Farshad and Felix-Redondo, Francisco J and Ferguson, Trevor S and Fernandes, Romulo A and Fernández-Bergés, Daniel and Ferrante, Daniel and Ferrari, Marika and Ferreccio, Catterina and Ferrieres, Jean and Finn, Joseph D and Fischer, Krista and Föger, Bernhard and Foo, Leng Huat and Forslund, Ann-Sofie and Forsner, Maria and Fouad, Heba M and Francis, Damian K and do Carmo Franco, Maria and Franco, Oscar H and Frontera, Guillermo and Fuchs, Flavio D and Fuchs, Sandra C and Fujita, Yuki and Furusawa, Takuro and Gaciong, Zbigniew and Galvano, Fabio and Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli and Gareta, Dickman and Garnett, Sarah P and Gaspoz, Jean-Michel and Gasull, Magda and Gates, Louise and Geleijnse, Johanna M and Ghasemian, Anoosheh and Ghimire, Anup and Giampaoli, Simona and Gianfagna, Francesco and Gill, Tiffany K and Giovannelli, Jonathan and Goldsmith, Rebecca A and Gonçalves, Helen and Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela and González-Rivas, Juan P and Gorbea, Mariano Bonet and Gottrand, Frederic and Graff-Iversen, Sidsel and Grafnetter, Dušan and Grajda, Aneta and Grammatikopoulou, Maria G and Gregor, Ronald D and Grodzicki, Tomasz and Grøntved, Anders and Grosso, Giuseppe and Gruden, Gabriella and Grujic, Vera and Gu, Dongfeng and Guan, Ong Peng and Gudmundsson, Elias F and Gudnason, Vilmundur and Guerrero, Ramiro and Guessous, Idris and Guimaraes, Andre L and Gulliford, Martin C and Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna and Gunter, Marc and Gupta, Prakash C and Gupta, Rajeev and Gureje, Oye and Gurzkowska, Beata and Gutierrez, Laura and Gutzwiller, Felix and Hadaegh, Farzad and Halkjær, Jytte and Hambleton, Ian R and Hardy, Rebecca and Hari Kumar, Rachakulla and Hata, Jun and Hayes, Alison J and He, Jiang and He, Yuna and Elisabeth, Marleen and Henriques, Ana and Cadena, Leticia Hernandez and Herrala, Sauli and Heshmat, Ramin and Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani and Ho, Sai Yin and Ho, Suzanne C and Hobbs, Michael and Hofman, Albert and Dinc, Gonul Horasan and Horimoto, Andrea R V R and Hormiga, Claudia M and Horta, Bernardo L and Houti, Leila and Howitt, Christina and Htay, Thein Thein and Htet, Aung Soe and Than Htike, Maung Maung and Hu, Yonghua and Huerta, José María and Huisman, Martijn and Husseini, Abdullatif S and Huybrechts, Inge and Hwalla, Nahla and Iacoviello, Licia and Iannone, Anna G and Ibrahim, Mohsen M and Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim and Ikeda, Nayu and Ikram, M Arfan and Irazola, Vilma E and Islam, Muhammad and al-Safi Ismail, Aziz and Ivkovic, Vanja and Iwasaki, Masanori and Jackson, Rod T and Jacobs, Jeremy M and Jaddou, Hashem and Jafar, Tazeen and Jamrozik, Konrad and Janszky, Imre and Jasienska, Grazyna and Jelaković, Ana and Jelaković, Bojan and Jennings, Garry and Jeong, Seung-lyeal and Jiang, Chao Qiang and Joffres, Michel and Johansson, Mattias and Jokelainen, Jari J and Jonas, Jost B and Jørgensen, Torben and Joshi, Pradeep and Jóźwiak, Jacek and Juolevi, Anne and Jurak, Gregor and Jureša, Vesna and Kaaks, Rudolf and Kafatos, Anthony and Kajantie, Eero O and Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra and Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi and Karki, Khem B and Kasaeian, Amir and Katz, Joanne and Kauhanen, Jussi and Kaur, Prabhdeep and Kavousi, Maryam and Kazakbaeva, Gyulli and Keil, Ulrich and Boker, Lital Keinan and Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka and Kelishadi, Roya and Kemper, Han C G and Kengne, Andre P and Kerimkulova, Alina and Kersting, Mathilde and Key, Timothy and Khader, Yousef Saleh and Khalili, Davood and Khang, Young-Ho and Khateeb, Mohammad and Khaw, Kay-Tee and Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula and Kiechl, Stefan and Killewo, Japhet and Kim, Jeongseon and Kim, Yeon-Yong and Klumbiene, Jurate and Knoflach, Michael and Kolle, Elin and Kolsteren, Patrick and Korrovits, Paul and Koskinen, Seppo and Kouda, Katsuyasu and Kowlessur, Sudhir and Koziel, Slawomir and Kriemler, Susi and Kristensen, Peter Lund and Krokstad, Steinar and Kromhout, Daan and Kruger, Herculina S and Kubinova, Ruzena and Kuciene, Renata and Kuh, Diana and Kujala, Urho M and Kulaga, Zbigniew and Krishna Kumar, R and Kurjata, Pawel and Kusuma, Yadlapalli S and Kuulasmaa, Kari and Kyobutungi, Catherine and Laatikainen, Tiina and Lachat, Carl and Lam, Tai Hing and Landrove, Orlando and Lanska, Vera and Lappas, Georg and Larijani, Bagher and Laugsand, Lars E and Laxmaiah, Avula and Le Nguyen Bao, Khanh and Le, Tuyen D and Leclercq, Catherine and Lee, Jeannette and Lee, Jeonghee and Lehtimäki, Terho and León-Muñoz, Luz M and Levitt, Naomi S and Li, Yanping and Lilly, Christa L and Lim, Wei-Yen and Lima-Costa, M Fernanda and Lin, Hsien-Ho and Lin, Xu and Lind, Lars and Linneberg, Allan and Lissner, Lauren and Litwin, Mieczyslaw and Liu, Jing and Lorbeer, Roberto and Lotufo, Paulo A and Lozano, José Eugenio and Luksiene, Dalia and Lundqvist, Annamari and Lunet, Nuno and Lytsy, Per and Ma, Guansheng and Ma, Jun and Machado-Coelho, George L L and Machi, Suka and Maggi, Stefania and Magliano, Dianna J and Magriplis, Emmanuella and Majer, Marjeta and Makdisse, Marcia and Malekzadeh, Reza and Malhotra, Rahul and Mallikharjuna Rao, Kodavanti and Malyutina, Sofia and Manios, Yannis and Mann, Jim I and Manzato, Enzo and Margozzini, Paula and Marques-Vidal, Pedro and Marques, Larissa Pruner and Marrugat, Jaume and Martorell, Reynaldo and Mathiesen, Ellisiv B and Matijasevich, Alicia and Matsha, Tandi E and Mbanya, Jean Claude N and Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J and McFarlane, Shelly R and McGarvey, Stephen T and McLachlan, Stela and McLean, Rachael M and McLean, Scott B and McNulty, Breige A and Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia and Medzioniene, Jurate and Meirhaeghe, Aline and Meisinger, Christa and Menezes, Ana Maria B and Menon, Geetha R and Meshram, Indrapal I and Metspalu, Andres and Meyer, Haakon E and Mi, Jie and Mikkel, Kairit and Miller, Jody C and Minderico, Cláudia S and Francisco, Juan and Miranda, J Jaime and Mirrakhimov, Erkin and Mišigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta and Modesti, Pietro A and Mohamed, Mostafa K and Mohammad, Kazem and Mohammadifard, Noushin and Mohan, Viswanathan and Mohanna, Salim and Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli and Møllehave, Line T and Møller, Niels C and Molnár, Dénes and Momenan, Amirabbas and Mondo, Charles K and Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K and Moon, Jin Soo and Moreira, Leila B and Morejon, Alain and Moreno, Luis A and Morgan, Karen and Moschonis, George and Mossakowska, Malgorzata and Mostafa, Aya and Mota, Jorge and Esmaeel Motlagh, Mohammad and Motta, Jorge and Msyamboza, Kelias P and Mu, Thet Thet and Muiesan, Maria L and Müller-Nurasyid, Martina and Murphy, Neil and Mursu, Jaakko and Musil, Vera and Nabipour, Iraj and Nagel, Gabriele and Naidu, Balkish M and Nakamura, Harunobu and Námešná, Jana and Nang, Ei Ei K and Nangia, Vinay B and Narake, Sameer and Nauck, Matthias and Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria and Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba and Neal, William A and Nenko, Ilona and Neovius, Martin and Nervi, Flavio and Neuhauser, Hannelore K and Nguyen, Chung T and Nguyen, Nguyen D and Nguyen, Quang Ngoc and Nguyen, Quang V and Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis E and Niiranen, Teemu J and Ning, Guang and Ninomiya, Toshiharu and Nishtar, Sania and Noale, Marianna and Noboa, Oscar A and Noorbala, Ahmad Ali and Norat, Teresa and Noto, Davide and Al Nsour, Mohannad and O'Reilly, Dermot and Oda, Eiji and Oehlers, Glenn and Oh, Kyungwon and Ohara, Kumiko and Olinto, Maria Teresa A and Oliveira, Isabel O and Omar, Mohd Azahadi and Onat, Altan and Ong, Sok King and Ono, Lariane M and Ordunez, Pedro and Ornelas, Rui and Osmond, Clive and Ostojic, Sergej M and Ostovar, Afshin and Otero, Johanna A and Overvad, Kim and Owusu-Dabo, Ellis and Paccaud, Fred Michel and Padez, Cristina and Pahomova, Elena and Pajak, Andrzej and Palli, Domenico and Palmieri, Luigi and Pan, Wen-Harn and Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra and Panza, Francesco and Papandreou, Dimitrios and Park, Soon-Woo and Parnell, Winsome R and Parsaeian, Mahboubeh and Patel, Nikhil D and Pecin, Ivan and Pednekar, Mangesh S and Peer, Nasheeta and Peeters, Petra H and Peixoto, Sergio Viana and Peltonen, Markku and Pereira, Alexandre C and Peters, Annette and Petersmann, Astrid and Petkeviciene, Janina and Peykari, Niloofar and Pham, Son Thai and Pigeot, Iris and Pikhart, Hynek and Pilav, Aida and Pilotto, Lorenza and Pitakaka, Freda and Piwonska, Aleksandra and Plans-Rubió, Pedro and Polašek, Ozren and Porta, Miquel and Portegies, Marileen L P and Pourshams, Akram and Poustchi, Hossein and Pradeepa, Rajendra and Prashant, Mathur and Price, Jacqueline F and Puder, Jardena J and Puiu, Maria and Punab, Margus and Qasrawi, Radwan F and Qorbani, Mostafa and Bao, Tran Quoc and Radic, Ivana and Radisauskas, Ricardas and Rahman, Mahfuzar and Raitakari, Olli and Raj, Manu and Ramachandra Rao, Sudha and Ramachandran, Ambady and Ramos, Elisabete and Rampal, Lekhraj and Rampal, Sanjay and Rangel Reina, Daniel A and Redon, Josep and Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M and Ribeiro, Robespierre and Riboli, Elio and Rigo, Fernando and Rinke de Wit, Tobias F and Ritti-Dias, Raphael M and Robinson, Sian M and Robitaille, Cynthia and Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando and del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, María and Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A and Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba and Romaguera, Dora and Ronkainen, Kimmo and Rosengren, Annika and Roy, Joel G R and Rubinstein, Adolfo and Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca and Rutkowski, Marcin and Sabanayagam, Charumathi and Sachdev, Harshpal S and Saidi, Olfa and Sakarya, Sibel and Salanave, Benoit and Salazar Martinez, Eduardo and Salmerón, Diego and Salomaa, Veikko and Salonen, Jukka T and Salvetti, Massimo and Sánchez-Abanto, Jose and Sans, Susana and Santos, Diana A and Santos, Ina S and Nunes dos Santos, Renata and Santos, Rute and Saramies, Jouko L and Sardinha, Luis B and Sarganas, Giselle and Sarrafzadegan, Nizal and Saum, Kai-Uwe and Savva, Savvas and Scazufca, Marcia and Schargrodsky, Herman and Schipf, Sabine and Schmidt, Carsten O and Schöttker, Ben and Schultsz, Constance and Schutte, Aletta E and Sein, Aye Aye and Sen, Abhijit and Senbanjo, Idowu O and Sepanlou, Sadaf G and Sharma, Sanjib K and Shaw, Jonathan E and Shibuya, Kenji and Shin, Dong Wook and Shin, Youchan and Si-Ramlee, Khairil and Siantar, Rosalynn and Sibai, Abla M and Santos Silva, Diego Augusto and Simon, Mary and Simons, Judith and Simons, Leon A and Sjöström, Michael and Skovbjerg, Sine and Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta and Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw and Smeeth, Liam and Smith, Margaret C and Snijder, Marieke B and So, Hung-Kwan and Sobngwi, Eugène and Söderberg, Stefan and Solfrizzi, Vincenzo and Sonestedt, Emily and Song, Yi and Sørensen, Thorkild I A and Soric, Maroje and Jérome, Charles Sossa and Soumare, Aicha and Staessen, Jan A and Starc, Gregor and Stathopoulou, Maria G and Stavreski, Bill and Steene-Johannessen, Jostein and Stehle, Peter and Stein, Aryeh D and Stergiou, George S and Stessman, Jochanan and Stieber, Jutta and Stöckl, Doris and Stocks, Tanja and Stokwiszewski, Jakub and Stronks, Karien and Strufaldi, Maria Wany and Sun, Chien-An and Sundström, Johan and Sung, Yn-Tz and Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul and Sy, Rody G and Shyong Tai, E and Tammesoo, Mari-Liis and Tamosiunas, Abdonas and Tan, Eng Joo and Tang, Xun and Tanser, Frank and Tao, Yong and Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul and Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B and Tautu, Oana-Florentina and Taylor, Anne and Theobald, Holger and Theodoridis, Xenophon and Thijs, Lutgarde and Thuesen, Betina H and Tjonneland, Anne and Tolonen, Hanna K and Tolstrup, Janne S and Topbas, Murat and Topór-Madry, Roman and Tormo, María José and Torrent, Maties and Traissac, Pierre and Trichopoulos, Dimitrios and Trichopoulou, Antonia and Trinh, Oanh T H and Trivedi, Atul and Tshepo, Lechaba and Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K and Tullu, Fikru and Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka and Tuomilehto, Jaakko and Turley, Maria L and Tynelius, Per and Tzourio, Christophe and Ueda, Peter and Ugel, Eunice E and Ulmer, Hanno and Uusitalo, Hannu M T and Valdivia, Gonzalo and Valvi, Damaskini and van der Schouw, Yvonne T and Van Herck, Koen and Van Minh, Hoang and van Rossem, Lenie and Van Schoor, Natasja M and van Valkengoed, Irene G M and Vanderschueren, Dirk and Vanuzzo, Diego and Vatten, Lars and Vega, Tomas and Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo and Veronesi, Giovanni and Monique Verschuren, W M and Verstraeten, Roosmarijn and Victora, Cesar G and Viet, Lucie and Viikari-Juntura, Eira and Vineis, Paolo and Vioque, Jesus and Virtanen, Jyrki K and Visvikis-Siest, Sophie and Viswanathan, Bharathi and Vlasoff, Tiina and Vollenweider, Peter and Voutilainen, Sari and Wade, Alisha N and Wagner, Aline and Walton, Janette and Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohamad and Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon and Wanderley, Rildo S and Wang, Ming-Dong and Wang, Qian and Wang, Ya Xing and Wang, Ying-Wei and Wannamethee, S Goya and Wareham, Nicholas and Wedderkopp, Niels and Weerasekera, Deepa and Whincup, Peter H and Widhalm, Kurt and Widyahening, Indah S and Wiecek, Andrzej and Wijga, Alet H and Wilks, Rainford J and Willeit, Johann and Willeit, Peter and Williams, Emmanuel A and Wilsgaard, Tom and Wojtyniak, Bogdan and Wong-McClure, Roy A and Wong, Justin Y Y and Wong, Tien Yin and Woo, Jean and Woodward, Mark and Giwercman Wu, Aleksander and Wu, Frederick C and Wu, Shouling and Xu, Haiquan and Yan, Weili and Yang, Xiaoguang and Ye, Xingwang and Yiallouros, Panayiotis K and Yoshihara, Akihiro and Younger-Coleman, Novie O and Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi and Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali and Zambon, Sabina and Zampelas, Antonis and Zdrojewski, Tomasz and Zeng, Yi and Zhao, Dong and Zhao, Wenhua and Zheng, Wei and Zheng, Yingfeng and Zhu, Dan and Zhussupov, Baurzhan and Zimmermann, Esther and Cisneros, Julio Zuñiga},
  issn         = {0300-5771},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Blood pressure,hypertension,population health,global health,non-communicable disease,HEALTH EXAMINATION SURVEYS,HYPERTENSION PREVALENCE,SECULAR TRENDS,UNITED-STATES,ARTERIAL-HYPERTENSION,SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS,URBAN COMMUNITIES,POTASSIUM INTAKE,GLOBAL TRENDS,SODIUM-INTAKE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {872--883},
  title        = {Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy016},
  volume       = {47},
  year         = {2018},
}

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