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Recommendations on diagnostic tools for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

Valarie Thomas (UGent) , Mark Blooi (UGent) , Pascale Van Rooij (UGent) , Sarah Van Praet (UGent) , Elin Verbrugghe (UGent) , E Grasselli, M Lukac, S Smith, Frank Pasmans (UGent) and An Martel (UGent)
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Abstract
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) poses a major threat to amphibian, and more specifically caudata, diversity. Bsal is currently spreading through Europe, and mitigation measures aimed at stopping its spread and preventing its introduction into naive environments are urgently needed. Screening for presence of Bsal and diagnosis of Bsal-induced disease in amphibians are essential core components of effective mitigation plans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present an overview of all Bsal diagnostic tools together with their limitations and to suggest guidelines to allow uniform interpretation. Here, we investigate the use of different diagnostic tools in post-mortem detection of Bsal and whether competition between Bd and Bsal occurs in the species-specific Bd and Bsal duplex real-time PCR. We also investigate the diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and reproducibility of the Bsal real-time PCR and show the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of Bsal-induced chytridiomycosis in amphibian samples stored in formaldehyde. Additionally, we have drawn up guidelines for the use and interpretation of the different diagnostic tools for Bsal currently available, to facilitate standardization of execution and interpretation.
Keywords
DNA COPY NUMBER, CHYTRID FUNGUS, SP-NOV, DENDROBATIDIS, AMPHIBIANS, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, SALAMANDERS, TIME, PCR, amphibians, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, chytrid fungi, diagnosis, emerging infectious disease, real-time PCR

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MLA
Thomas, Valarie et al. “Recommendations on Diagnostic Tools for Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 65.2 (2018): e478–e488. Print.
APA
Thomas, V., Blooi, M., Van Rooij, P., Van Praet, S., Verbrugghe, E., Grasselli, E., Lukac, M., et al. (2018). Recommendations on diagnostic tools for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, 65(2), e478–e488.
Chicago author-date
Thomas, Valarie, Mark Blooi, Pascale Van Rooij, Sarah Van Praet, Elin Verbrugghe, E Grasselli, M Lukac, S Smith, Frank Pasmans, and An Martel. 2018. “Recommendations on Diagnostic Tools for Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 (2): e478–e488.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Thomas, Valarie, Mark Blooi, Pascale Van Rooij, Sarah Van Praet, Elin Verbrugghe, E Grasselli, M Lukac, S Smith, Frank Pasmans, and An Martel. 2018. “Recommendations on Diagnostic Tools for Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 (2): e478–e488.
Vancouver
1.
Thomas V, Blooi M, Van Rooij P, Van Praet S, Verbrugghe E, Grasselli E, et al. Recommendations on diagnostic tools for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2018;65(2):e478–e488.
IEEE
[1]
V. Thomas et al., “Recommendations on diagnostic tools for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans,” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. e478–e488, 2018.
@article{8560226,
  abstract     = {Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) poses a major threat to amphibian, and more specifically caudata, diversity. Bsal is currently spreading through Europe, and mitigation measures aimed at stopping its spread and preventing its introduction into naive environments are urgently needed. Screening for presence of Bsal and diagnosis of Bsal-induced disease in amphibians are essential core components of effective mitigation plans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present an overview of all Bsal diagnostic tools together with their limitations and to suggest guidelines to allow uniform interpretation. Here, we investigate the use of different diagnostic tools in post-mortem detection of Bsal and whether competition between Bd and Bsal occurs in the species-specific Bd and Bsal duplex real-time PCR. We also investigate the diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and reproducibility of the Bsal real-time PCR and show the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of Bsal-induced chytridiomycosis in amphibian samples stored in formaldehyde. Additionally, we have drawn up guidelines for the use and interpretation of the different diagnostic tools for Bsal currently available, to facilitate standardization of execution and interpretation.},
  author       = {Thomas, Valarie and Blooi, Mark and Van Rooij, Pascale and Van Praet, Sarah and Verbrugghe, Elin and Grasselli, E and Lukac, M and Smith, S and Pasmans, Frank and Martel, An},
  issn         = {1865-1674},
  journal      = {TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES},
  keywords     = {DNA COPY NUMBER,CHYTRID FUNGUS,SP-NOV,DENDROBATIDIS,AMPHIBIANS,CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,SALAMANDERS,TIME,PCR,amphibians,Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans,chytrid fungi,diagnosis,emerging infectious disease,real-time PCR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {e478--e488},
  title        = {Recommendations on diagnostic tools for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12787},
  volume       = {65},
  year         = {2018},
}

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