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Tense usage in speech conclusions with past reference in Homer

Filip De Decker (UGent)
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Abstract
The current article investigates the tense usage in the speech conclusions with past reference in Homer ("so s/he said"). It starts by listing the different conclusions by verb and per tense, then discusses previous explanations and finally proceeds to the analysis. By analysing the examples, the article argues that the distinction is not metrically motivated, but explainable from an aspectual point of view: when the speaking had an influence on, caused a reaction from, and/or was met by a negative or positive response by the audience, the imperfect was used. When the speaking provided the background description for a new action, the imperfect was also used. The aorist was chosen, when the speaker immediately proceeded to something else after s/he finished speaking (i.e. when the subject of the speaking was the same as that of the verb form following the speech conclusion), or when the act of speaking was described as being in vain. The pluperfect appeared when the completion of the act of speaking was described. In earlier scholarship, the predominance of the imperfect (and especially with phi eta mu i) caused problems. We first address the earlier explanations (aorist, imperfect form with aoristic meaning or genuine imperfect) and then proceed to an analysis, including the exceptions. At the end, we address the question whether (eta) over tilde was an aorist or imperfect.(1)

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Citation

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MLA
De Decker, Filip. “Tense Usage in Speech Conclusions with Past Reference in Homer.” JOURNAL OF INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES, vol. 46, 2018, pp. 109–51.
APA
De Decker, F. (2018). Tense usage in speech conclusions with past reference in Homer. JOURNAL OF INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES, 46, 109–151.
Chicago author-date
De Decker, Filip. 2018. “Tense Usage in Speech Conclusions with Past Reference in Homer.” JOURNAL OF INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES 46: 109–51.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Decker, Filip. 2018. “Tense Usage in Speech Conclusions with Past Reference in Homer.” JOURNAL OF INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES 46: 109–151.
Vancouver
1.
De Decker F. Tense usage in speech conclusions with past reference in Homer. JOURNAL OF INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES. 2018;46:109–51.
IEEE
[1]
F. De Decker, “Tense usage in speech conclusions with past reference in Homer,” JOURNAL OF INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES, vol. 46, pp. 109–151, 2018.
@article{8559924,
  abstract     = {The current article investigates the tense usage in the speech conclusions with past reference in Homer ("so s/he said"). It starts by listing the different conclusions by verb and per tense, then discusses previous explanations and finally proceeds to the analysis. By analysing the examples, the article argues that the distinction is not metrically motivated, but explainable from an aspectual point of view: when the speaking had an influence on, caused a reaction from, and/or was met by a negative or positive response by the audience, the imperfect was used. When the speaking provided the background description for a new action, the imperfect was also used. The aorist was chosen, when the speaker immediately proceeded to something else after s/he finished speaking (i.e. when the subject of the speaking was the same as that of the verb form following the speech conclusion), or when the act of speaking was described as being in vain. The pluperfect appeared when the completion of the act of speaking was described. In earlier scholarship, the predominance of the imperfect (and especially with phi eta mu i) caused problems. We first address the earlier explanations (aorist, imperfect form with aoristic meaning or genuine imperfect) and then proceed to an analysis, including the exceptions. At the end, we address the question whether (eta) over tilde was an aorist or imperfect.(1)},
  author       = {De Decker, Filip},
  issn         = {0092-2323},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {109--151},
  title        = {Tense usage in speech conclusions with past reference in Homer},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2018},
}

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