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The tense usage in the speech introductions with past reference in Homer

Filip De Decker (UGent)
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Organization
Abstract
The current article investigates the tense usage in the speech introductions with past reference in Homer. It starts by giving an overview on the previous theories on tense and aspect use with verbs of speaking. It then lists the different introductions by category (verba dicendi sensu stricto, verba respondendi, verba clamandi vel sonandi, verba clamandi, verba vituperandi, verba precandi, verba orandi, verba hortandi, verba rogandi, verba iubendi, verba inhibendi, verba iurandi, verba explicandi, verba negandi, verba monstrandi and finally verba sentiendi), by verb and per tense, and discusses the tense usage per category. Only when necessary for a correct understanding of the verb(s), etymological observations have been included. By analysing the examples, the article argues that the distinction bteween the different tenses is not metrically motivated, but explainable from an aspectual point of view: if the act or speaking was a reaction on a previous event, the imperfect was preferred, but if the speaker addressed a large group (from which no reaction could be expected), the aorist was preferred; verbs which indicated punctual actions (such as shouting or raising one's voice) were preferred in the aorist, whereas verbs with repeated actions (such as praying to the gods or begging someone) were expressed in the imperfect; if a repeated action was described (such as Thersites's constant harassing of the army's leaders), the imperfect was preferred, but when an individual insult was described, the aorist was used; and finally, when an usual prayer was made, the imperfect was used, but when a character made an unusual request - i.e. was not praying to a god, but to the Nymphs or Thetis-, the aorist was used, because such prayers could not be considered habitual actions.

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MLA
De Decker, Filip. “The Tense Usage in the Speech Introductions with Past Reference in Homer .” CAMBRIDGE CLASSICAL JOURNAL, 2019.
APA
De Decker, F. (2019). The tense usage in the speech introductions with past reference in Homer . CAMBRIDGE CLASSICAL JOURNAL.
Chicago author-date
De Decker, Filip. 2019. “The Tense Usage in the Speech Introductions with Past Reference in Homer .” CAMBRIDGE CLASSICAL JOURNAL.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Decker, Filip. 2019. “The Tense Usage in the Speech Introductions with Past Reference in Homer .” CAMBRIDGE CLASSICAL JOURNAL.
Vancouver
1.
De Decker F. The tense usage in the speech introductions with past reference in Homer . CAMBRIDGE CLASSICAL JOURNAL. 2019;
IEEE
[1]
F. De Decker, “The tense usage in the speech introductions with past reference in Homer ,” CAMBRIDGE CLASSICAL JOURNAL, 2019.
@article{8559922,
  abstract     = {The current article investigates the tense usage in the speech introductions with past reference in Homer. It starts by giving an overview on the previous theories on tense and aspect use with verbs of speaking. It then lists the different introductions by category (verba dicendi sensu stricto, verba respondendi, verba clamandi vel sonandi, verba clamandi, verba vituperandi, verba precandi, verba orandi, verba hortandi, verba rogandi, verba iubendi, verba inhibendi, verba iurandi, verba explicandi, verba negandi, verba monstrandi and finally verba sentiendi), by verb and per tense, and discusses the tense usage per category. Only when necessary for a correct understanding of the verb(s), etymological observations have been included. By analysing the examples, the article argues that the distinction bteween the different tenses is not metrically motivated, but explainable from an aspectual point of view: if the act or speaking was a reaction on a previous event, the imperfect was preferred, but if the speaker addressed a large group (from which no reaction could be expected), the aorist was preferred; verbs which indicated punctual actions (such as shouting or raising one's voice) were preferred in the aorist, whereas verbs with repeated actions (such as praying to the gods or begging someone) were expressed in the imperfect; if a repeated action was described (such as Thersites's constant harassing of the army's leaders), the imperfect was preferred, but when an individual insult was described, the aorist was used; and finally, when an usual prayer was made, the imperfect was used, but when a character made an unusual request - i.e. was not praying to a god, but to the Nymphs or Thetis-, the aorist was used, because such prayers could not be considered habitual actions.},
  author       = {De Decker, Filip},
  issn         = {1750-2705},
  journal      = {CAMBRIDGE CLASSICAL JOURNAL},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {The tense usage in the speech introductions with past reference in Homer },
  year         = {2019},
}