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Abstract
Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo-versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests.
Keywords
biogeographic legacies, forest classification, forest functional similarity, phylogenetic community distance, tropical forests, PLANT DIVERSITY, RAIN-FOREST, ANGIOSPERMS, REGIONS, PATTERNS, UPDATE

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Chicago
Slik, JW Ferry, Janet Franklin, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Richard Field, Salomon Aguilar, Nikolay Aguirre, Jorge Ahumada, et al. 2018. “Phylogenetic Classification of the World’s Tropical Forests.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (8): 1837–1842.
APA
Slik, J. F., Franklin, J., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Field, R., Aguilar, S., Aguirre, N., Ahumada, J., et al. (2018). Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 115(8), 1837–1842.
Vancouver
1.
Slik JF, Franklin J, Arroyo-Rodríguez V, Field R, Aguilar S, Aguirre N, et al. Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2018;115(8):1837–42.
MLA
Slik, JW Ferry, Janet Franklin, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, et al. “Phylogenetic Classification of the World’s Tropical Forests.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 115.8 (2018): 1837–1842. Print.
@article{8559907,
  abstract     = {Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo-versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests.},
  author       = {Slik, JW Ferry and Franklin, Janet and Arroyo-Rodr{\'i}guez, V{\'i}ctor and Field, Richard and Aguilar, Salomon and Aguirre, Nikolay and Ahumada, Jorge and Aiba, Shin-Ichiro and Alves, Luciana F and K, Anitha and Avella, Andres and Mora, Francisco and Aymard C., Gerardo A and B{\'a}ez, Selene and Balvanera, Patricia and Bastian, Meredith L and Bastin, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois and Bellingham, Peter J and van den Berg, Eduardo and da Concei\c{c}{\~a}o Bispo, Polyanna and Boeckx, Pascal and Boehning-Gaese, Katrin and Bongers, Frans and Boyle, Brad and Brambach, Fabian and Brearley, Francis Q and Brown, Sandra and Chai, Shauna-Lee and Chazdon, Robin L and Chen, Shengbin and Chhang, Phourin and Chuyong, George and Ewango, Corneille and Coronado, Indiana M and Crist{\'o}bal-Azkarate, Jurgi and Culmsee, Heike and Damas, Kipiro and Dattaraja, HS and Davidar, Priya and DeWalt, Saara J and Din, Hazimah and Drake, Donald R and Duque, Alvaro and Durigan, Giselda and Eichhorn, Karl and Eler, Eduardo Schmidt and Enoki, Tsutomu and Ensslin, Andreas and Fandohan, Adand{\'e} Belarmain and Farwig, Nina and Feeley, Kenneth J and Fischer, Markus and Forshed, Olle and Garcia, Queila Souza and Garkoti, Satish Chandra and Gillespie, Thomas W and Gillet, Jean-Francois and Gonmadje, Christelle and Granzow-de la Cerda, I{\~n}igo and Griffith, Daniel M and Grogan, James and Hakeem, Khalid Rehman and Harris, David J and Harrison, Rhett D and Hector, Andy and Hemp, Andreas and Homeier, J{\"u}rgen and Hussain, M Shah and Ibarra-Manr{\'i}quez, Guillermo and Hanum, I Faridah and Imai, Nobuo and Jansen, Patrick A and Joly, Carlos Alfredo and Joseph, Shijo and Kartawinata, Kuswata and Kearsley, Elizabeth and Kelly, Daniel L and Kessler, Michael and Killeen, Timothy J and Kooyman, Robert M and Laumonier, Yves and Laurance, Susan G and Laurance, William F and Lawes, Michael J and Letcher, Susan G and Lindsell, Jeremy and Lovett, Jon and Lozada, Jose and Lu, Xinghui and Lykke, Anne Mette and Mahmud, Khairil Bin and Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana and Mansor, Asyraf and Marshall, Andrew R and Martin, Emanuel H and Calderado Leal Matos, Darley and Meave, Jorge A and Melo, Felipe PL and Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre and Metali, Faizah and Medjibe, Vincent P and Metzger, Jean Paul and Metzker, Thiago and Mohandass, D and Mungu{\'i}a-Rosas, Miguel A and Mu{\~n}oz, Rodrigo and Nurtjahy, Eddy and de Oliveira, Eddie Lenza and Parolin, Pia and Parren, Marc and Parthasarathy, N and Paudel, Ekananda and Perez, Rolando and P{\'e}rez-Garc{\'i}a, Eduardo A and Pommer, Ulf and Poorter, Lourens and Qie, Lan and Piedade, Maria Teresa F and Pinto, Jos{\'e} Roberto Rodrigues and Poulsen, Axel Dalberg and Poulsen, John R and Powers, Jennifer S and Prasad, Rama Chandra and Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe and Rangel, Orlando and Reitsma, Jan and Rocha, Diogo SB and Rolim, Samir and Rovero, Francesco and Rozak, Andes and Ruokolainen, Kalle and Rutishauser, Ervan and Rutten, Gemma and Mohd. Said, Mohd Nizam and Saiter, Felipe Z and Saner, Philippe and Santos, Braulio and dos Santos, Jo{\~a}o Roberto and Sarker, Swapan Kumar and Schmitt, Christine B and Schoengart, Jochen and Schulze, Mark and Sheil, Douglas and Sist, Plinio and Souza, Alexandre F and Spironello, Wilson Roberto and Sposito, Tereza and Steinmetz, Robert and Stevart, Tariq and Suganuma, Marcio Seiji and Sukri, Rahayu and Sultana, Aisha and Sukumar, Raman and Sunderland, Terry and Suresh, HS and Suzuki, Eizi and Tabarelli, Marcelo and Tang, Jianwei and Tanner, Ed V J and Targhetta, Natalia and Theilade, Ida and Thomas, Duncan and Timberlake, Jonathan and de Morisson Valeriano, M{\'a}rcio and van Valkenburg, Johan and Van Do, Tran and Van Sam, Hoang and Vandermeer, John H and Verbeeck, Hans and Vetaas, Ole Reidar and Adekunle, Victor and Vieira, Simone A and Webb, Campbell O and Webb, Edward L and Whitfeld, Timothy and Wich, Serge and Williams, John and Wiser, Susan and Wittmann, Florian and Yang, Xiaobo and Adou Yao, C Yves and Yap, Sandra L and Zahawi, Rakan A and Zakaria, Rahmad and Zang, Runguo},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
  keyword      = {biogeographic legacies,forest classification,forest functional similarity,phylogenetic community distance,tropical forests,PLANT DIVERSITY,RAIN-FOREST,ANGIOSPERMS,REGIONS,PATTERNS,UPDATE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1837--1842},
  title        = {Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1714977115},
  volume       = {115},
  year         = {2018},
}

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