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Multiple mycotoxins in rice : occurrence and health risk assessment in children and adults of Punjab, Pakistan

(2018) TOXINS. 10(2).
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Abstract
Mycotoxin contamination in rice can create a health risk for the consumers. In this study, the measurement of 23 mycotoxins in rice samples (n = 180) was performed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. A food frequency questionnaire was used to get rice consumption data for the assessment of mycotoxin dietary exposure, before calculating the health risk in adults and children of north and south regions of the Pakistani Punjab province. The prevalence of aflatoxin B-1 (56%), aflatoxin B-2 (48%), nivalenol (28%), diacetoxyscirpenol (23%), fumonisin B-1 (42%), zearalenone (15%), HT-2 toxin (10%), deoxynivalenol (8%), and ochratoxin A (6%) was estimated in samples with a mean concentration range between 0.61 and 22.98 mu g/kg. Aflatoxin degradation by traditional Pakistani cooking recipes was evaluated and observed to be 41-63%. The dietary exposure to aflatoxins exceeded the tolerable daily intake at all levels, and ochratoxin A and zearalenone posed health risk at high contamination and high consumption levels. The margin of aflatoxin B-1 exposure ranged between 10 and 69 in adults and 10 and 62 in children. The mean cancer risk by aflatoxin B-1 exposure was 0.070 (adults) and 0.071 (children) cases/year/100,000 people in South Punjab population, and 0.122 (adults) and 0.127 (children) cases/year/100,000 people in North Punjab population. This study will provide new insights for the planning and management of mycotoxins in Pakistan.
Keywords
ESTIMATED DIETARY EXPOSURE, DIFFERENT COOKING METHODS, FRENCH TOTAL, DIET, AFLATOXIN B-1, FOOD MYCOTOXINS, OCHRATOXIN-A, BASMATI RICE, PRODUCTS, CONTAMINATION, CEREALS, LC-MS/MS, consumption, cooking effect, dietary exposure, aflatoxins, margin of exposure, cancer risk

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Citation

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Chicago
Majeed, Saima, Marthe De Boevre, Sarah De Saeger, Waqar Rauf, Abdul Tawab, Fazal-e-Habib Fazal-e-Habib, Moazur Rahman, and Mazhar Iqbal. 2018. “Multiple Mycotoxins in Rice : Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment in Children and Adults of Punjab, Pakistan.” Toxins 10 (2).
APA
Majeed, S., De Boevre, M., De Saeger, S., Rauf, W., Tawab, A., Fazal-e-Habib, F.-H., Rahman, M., et al. (2018). Multiple mycotoxins in rice : occurrence and health risk assessment in children and adults of Punjab, Pakistan. TOXINS, 10(2).
Vancouver
1.
Majeed S, De Boevre M, De Saeger S, Rauf W, Tawab A, Fazal-e-Habib F-H, et al. Multiple mycotoxins in rice : occurrence and health risk assessment in children and adults of Punjab, Pakistan. TOXINS. 2018;10(2).
MLA
Majeed, Saima, Marthe De Boevre, Sarah De Saeger, et al. “Multiple Mycotoxins in Rice : Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment in Children and Adults of Punjab, Pakistan.” TOXINS 10.2 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8559820,
  abstract     = {Mycotoxin contamination in rice can create a health risk for the consumers. In this study, the measurement of 23 mycotoxins in rice samples (n = 180) was performed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. A food frequency questionnaire was used to get rice consumption data for the assessment of mycotoxin dietary exposure, before calculating the health risk in adults and children of north and south regions of the Pakistani Punjab province. The prevalence of aflatoxin B-1 (56\%), aflatoxin B-2 (48\%), nivalenol (28\%), diacetoxyscirpenol (23\%), fumonisin B-1 (42\%), zearalenone (15\%), HT-2 toxin (10\%), deoxynivalenol (8\%), and ochratoxin A (6\%) was estimated in samples with a mean concentration range between 0.61 and 22.98 mu g/kg. Aflatoxin degradation by traditional Pakistani cooking recipes was evaluated and observed to be 41-63\%. The dietary exposure to aflatoxins exceeded the tolerable daily intake at all levels, and ochratoxin A and zearalenone posed health risk at high contamination and high consumption levels. The margin of aflatoxin B-1 exposure ranged between 10 and 69 in adults and 10 and 62 in children. The mean cancer risk by aflatoxin B-1 exposure was 0.070 (adults) and 0.071 (children) cases/year/100,000 people in South Punjab population, and 0.122 (adults) and 0.127 (children) cases/year/100,000 people in North Punjab population. This study will provide new insights for the planning and management of mycotoxins in Pakistan.},
  articleno    = {77},
  author       = {Majeed, Saima and De Boevre, Marthe and De Saeger, Sarah and Rauf, Waqar and Tawab, Abdul and Fazal-e-Habib, Fazal-e-Habib and Rahman, Moazur and Iqbal, Mazhar},
  issn         = {2072-6651},
  journal      = {TOXINS},
  keyword      = {ESTIMATED DIETARY EXPOSURE,DIFFERENT COOKING METHODS,FRENCH TOTAL,DIET,AFLATOXIN B-1,FOOD MYCOTOXINS,OCHRATOXIN-A,BASMATI RICE,PRODUCTS,CONTAMINATION,CEREALS,LC-MS/MS,consumption,cooking effect,dietary exposure,aflatoxins,margin of exposure,cancer risk},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {30},
  title        = {Multiple mycotoxins in rice : occurrence and health risk assessment in children and adults of Punjab, Pakistan},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10020077},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2018},
}

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