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Urinary extracellular vesicle biomarkers in urological cancers : from discovery towards clinical implementation

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Abstract
Urine contains cellular elements, biochemicals, and proteins derived from glomerular filtration of plasma, renal tubule excretion, and urogenital tract secretions that reflect an individual's metabolic and pathophysiologic state. Despite intensive research into the discovery of urinary biomarkers to facilitate early diagnosis, accurate prognosis and prediction of therapy response in urological cancers, none of these markers has reached widespread use. Their implementation into daily clinical practice is hampered by a substantial degree of heterogeneity in performance characteristics and uncertainty about reliability, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness, in addition to several technical limitations. Extracellular vesicles (EV) have raised interest as a potential source of biomarker discovery because of their role in intercellular communication and the resemblance of their molecular content to that of the releasing cells. We review currently used urinary biomarkers in the clinic and attempts that have been made to identify EV-derived biomarkers for urological cancers. In addition, we discuss technical and methodological considerations towards their clinical implementation.
Keywords
Biomarkers, Omics, Extracellular vesicles, Exosomes, Urine, Cancer, TRANSITIONAL-CELL CARCINOMA, IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION, BTA STAT TEST, NUCLEAR-MATRIX PROTEIN, COMPLEMENT FACTOR-H, GRADE PROSTATE-CANCER, UBC RAPID TEST, BLADDER-CANCER, UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA, LIQUID BIOPSY

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Chicago
Dhondt, Bert, Jan Van Deun, Silke Vermaerke, Ario de Marco, Nicolaas Lumen, Olivier De Wever, and An Hendrix. 2018. “Urinary Extracellular Vesicle Biomarkers in Urological Cancers : from Discovery Towards Clinical Implementation.” International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 99: 236–256.
APA
Dhondt, Bert, Van Deun, J., Vermaerke, S., de Marco, A., Lumen, N., De Wever, O., & Hendrix, A. (2018). Urinary extracellular vesicle biomarkers in urological cancers : from discovery towards clinical implementation. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY, 99, 236–256.
Vancouver
1.
Dhondt B, Van Deun J, Vermaerke S, de Marco A, Lumen N, De Wever O, et al. Urinary extracellular vesicle biomarkers in urological cancers : from discovery towards clinical implementation. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY. 2018;99:236–56.
MLA
Dhondt, Bert et al. “Urinary Extracellular Vesicle Biomarkers in Urological Cancers : from Discovery Towards Clinical Implementation.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY 99 (2018): 236–256. Print.
@article{8559155,
  abstract     = {Urine contains cellular elements, biochemicals, and proteins derived from glomerular filtration of plasma, renal tubule excretion, and urogenital tract secretions that reflect an individual's metabolic and pathophysiologic state. Despite intensive research into the discovery of urinary biomarkers to facilitate early diagnosis, accurate prognosis and prediction of therapy response in urological cancers, none of these markers has reached widespread use. Their implementation into daily clinical practice is hampered by a substantial degree of heterogeneity in performance characteristics and uncertainty about reliability, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness, in addition to several technical limitations. Extracellular vesicles (EV) have raised interest as a potential source of biomarker discovery because of their role in intercellular communication and the resemblance of their molecular content to that of the releasing cells. We review currently used urinary biomarkers in the clinic and attempts that have been made to identify EV-derived biomarkers for urological cancers. In addition, we discuss technical and methodological considerations towards their clinical implementation.},
  author       = {Dhondt, Bert and Van Deun, Jan and Vermaerke, Silke and de Marco, Ario and Lumen, Nicolaas and De Wever, Olivier and Hendrix, An},
  issn         = {1357-2725},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Biomarkers,Omics,Extracellular vesicles,Exosomes,Urine,Cancer,TRANSITIONAL-CELL CARCINOMA,IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION,BTA STAT TEST,NUCLEAR-MATRIX PROTEIN,COMPLEMENT FACTOR-H,GRADE PROSTATE-CANCER,UBC RAPID TEST,BLADDER-CANCER,UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA,LIQUID BIOPSY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {236--256},
  title        = {Urinary extracellular vesicle biomarkers in urological cancers : from discovery towards clinical implementation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2018.04.009},
  volume       = {99},
  year         = {2018},
}

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