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Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region : an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts

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Abstract
Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins >= 20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 2029 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.
Keywords
BODY-MASS INDEX, ANTHROPOMETRICAL MEASURES, COLLABORATIVE PROJECT, CODATWINS PROJECT, OBESITY EPIDEMIC, HERITABILITY, TRAITS, COMPONENTS, INSIGHTS, TRACKING, BMI, adults, genetics, twins, international comparisons

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Chicago
Silventoinen, Karri, Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, Yoshie Yokoyama, Yoon-Mi Hur, Wendy Cozen, Amie E Hwang, et al. 2017. “Differences in Genetic and Environmental Variation in Adult BMI by Sex, Age, Time Period, and Region : an Individual-based Pooled Analysis of 40 Twin Cohorts.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 106 (2): 457–466.
APA
Silventoinen, K., Jelenkovic, A., Sund, R., Yokoyama, Y., Hur, Y.-M., Cozen, W., Hwang, A. E., et al. (2017). Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region : an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 106(2), 457–466.
Vancouver
1.
Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Sund R, Yokoyama Y, Hur Y-M, Cozen W, et al. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region : an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2017;106(2):457–66.
MLA
Silventoinen, Karri, Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, et al. “Differences in Genetic and Environmental Variation in Adult BMI by Sex, Age, Time Period, and Region : an Individual-based Pooled Analysis of 40 Twin Cohorts.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 106.2 (2017): 457–466. Print.
@article{8559147,
  abstract     = {Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. 
Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. 
Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins {\textrangle}= 20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). 
Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95\% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95\% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 2029 y of age to 0.57 (95\% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95\% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. 
Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.},
  author       = {Silventoinen, Karri and Jelenkovic, Aline and Sund, Reijo and Yokoyama, Yoshie and Hur, Yoon-Mi and Cozen, Wendy and Hwang, Amie E and Mack, Thomas M and Honda, Chika and Inui, Fujio and Iwatani, Yoshinori and Watanabe, Mikio and Tomizawa, Rie and Pietilainen, Kirsi H and Rissanen, Aila and Siribaddana, Sisira H and Hotopf, Matthew and Sumathipala, Athula and Rijsdijk, Fruhling and Tan, Qihua and Zhang, Dongfeng and Pang, Zengchang and Piirtola, Maarit and Aaltonen, Sari and Oncel, Sevgi Y and Aliev, Fazil and Rebato, Esther and Hjelmborg, Jacob B and Christensen, Kaare and Skytthe, Axel and Kyvik, Kirsten O and Silberg, Judy L and Eaves, Lindon J and Cutler, Tessa L and Ordonana, Juan R and Sanchez-Romera, Juan F and Colodro-Conde, Lucia and Song, Yun-Mi and Yang, Sarah and Lee, Kayoung and Franz, Carol E and Kremen, William S and Lyons, Michael J and Busjahn, Andreas and Nelson, Tracy L and Whitfield, Keith E and Kandler, Christian and Jang, Kerry L and Gatz, Margaret and Butler, David A and Stazi, Maria A and Fagnani, Corrado and D'Ippolito, Cristina and Duncan, Glen E and Buchwald, Dedra and Martin, Nicholas G and Medland, Sarah E and Montgomery, Grant W and Jeong, Hoe-Uk and Swan, Gary E and Krasnow, Ruth and Magnusson, Patrik Ke and Pedersen, Nancy L and Aslan, Anna K Dahl and McAdams, Tom A and Eley, Thalia C and Gregory, Alice M and Tynelius, Per and Baker, Laura A and Tuvblad, Catherine and Bayasgalan, Gombojav and Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol and Spector, Timothy D and Mangino, Massimo and Lachance, Genevieve and Burt, S Alexandra and Klump, Kelly L and Harris, Jennifer R and Brandt, Ingunn and Nilsen, Thomas S and Krueger, Robert F and Mcgue, Matt and Pahlen, Shandell and Corley, Robin P and Huibregtse, Brooke M and Bartels, Meike and van Beijsterveldt, Catharina EM and Willemsen, Gonneke and Goldberg, Jack H and Rasmussen, Finn and Tarnoki, Adam D and Tarnoki, David L and Derom, Catherine and Vlietinck, Robert F and Loos, Ruth JF and Hopper, John L and Sung, Joohon and Maes, Hermine H and Turkheimer, Eric and Boomsma, Dorret I and Sorensen, Thorkild IA and Kaprio, Jaakko},
  issn         = {0002-9165},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {BODY-MASS INDEX,ANTHROPOMETRICAL MEASURES,COLLABORATIVE PROJECT,CODATWINS PROJECT,OBESITY EPIDEMIC,HERITABILITY,TRAITS,COMPONENTS,INSIGHTS,TRACKING,BMI,adults,genetics,twins,international comparisons},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {457--466},
  title        = {Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region : an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.117.153643},
  volume       = {106},
  year         = {2017},
}

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