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Decision-making for mitigating wildlife diseases : from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians

(2018) JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY. 55(4). p.1987-1996
Author
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Abstract
1. Conservation science can be most effective in its decision-support role when seeking answers to clearly formulated questions of direct management relevance. Emerging wildlife diseases, a driver of global biodiversity loss, illustrate the challenges of performing this role: in spite of considerable research, successful disease mitigation is uncommon. Decision analysis is increasingly advocated to guide mitigation planning, but its application remains rare. 2. Using an integral projection model, we explored potential mitigation actions for avoiding population declines and the ongoing spatial spread of the fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). This fungus has recently caused severe amphibian declines in north-western Europe and currently threatens Palearctic salamander diversity. 3. Available evidence suggests that a Bsal outbreak in a fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population will lead to its rapid extirpation. Treatments such as anti-fungals or probiotics would need to effectively interrupt transmission (reduce probability of infection by nearly 90%) in order to reduce the risk of host extirpation and successfully eradicate the pathogen. 4. Improving the survival of infected hosts is most likely to be detrimental as it increases the potential for pathogen transmission and spread. Active removal of a large proportion of the host population has some potential to locally eradicate Bsal and interrupt its spread, depending on the presence of Bsal reservoirs and on the host's spatial dynamics, which should therefore represent research priorities. 5. Synthesis and applications. Mitigation of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans epidemics in susceptible host species is highly challenging, requiring effective interruption of transmission and radical removal of host individuals. More generally, our study illustrates the advantages of framing conservation science directly in the management decision context, rather than adapting to it a posteriori.
Keywords
amphibian, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, chytrid fungus, conservation management, disease spread, epidemiology, host-pathogen, integral projection model, salamander, transmission, INTEGRAL PROJECTION MODELS, BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-SALAMANDRIVORANS, STRONG INFERENCE, CHYTRID FUNGUS, SP-NOV, CONSERVATION, MANAGEMENT, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, INFORMATION, EXTINCTION

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Citation

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MLA
Canessa, Stefano et al. “Decision-making for Mitigating Wildlife Diseases : from Theory to Practice for an Emerging Fungal Pathogen of Amphibians.” JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY 55.4 (2018): 1987–1996. Print.
APA
Canessa, S., Bozzuto, C., Campbell Grant, E. H., Cruickshank, S. S., Fisher, M. C., Koella, J. C., Lötters, S., et al. (2018). Decision-making for mitigating wildlife diseases : from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, 55(4), 1987–1996.
Chicago author-date
Canessa, Stefano, Claudio Bozzuto, Evan H Campbell Grant, Sam S Cruickshank, Matthew C Fisher, Jacob C Koella, Stefan Lötters, et al. 2018. “Decision-making for Mitigating Wildlife Diseases : from Theory to Practice for an Emerging Fungal Pathogen of Amphibians.” Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (4): 1987–1996.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Canessa, Stefano, Claudio Bozzuto, Evan H Campbell Grant, Sam S Cruickshank, Matthew C Fisher, Jacob C Koella, Stefan Lötters, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Ben C Scheele, Adriana Marieke van der Sluijs, Sebastian Steinfartz, and Benedikt R Schmidt. 2018. “Decision-making for Mitigating Wildlife Diseases : from Theory to Practice for an Emerging Fungal Pathogen of Amphibians.” Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (4): 1987–1996.
Vancouver
1.
Canessa S, Bozzuto C, Campbell Grant EH, Cruickshank SS, Fisher MC, Koella JC, et al. Decision-making for mitigating wildlife diseases : from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY. 2018;55(4):1987–96.
IEEE
[1]
S. Canessa et al., “Decision-making for mitigating wildlife diseases : from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians,” JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1987–1996, 2018.
@article{8558301,
  abstract     = {1. Conservation science can be most effective in its decision-support role when seeking answers to clearly formulated questions of direct management relevance. Emerging wildlife diseases, a driver of global biodiversity loss, illustrate the challenges of performing this role: in spite of considerable research, successful disease mitigation is uncommon. Decision analysis is increasingly advocated to guide mitigation planning, but its application remains rare. 
2. Using an integral projection model, we explored potential mitigation actions for avoiding population declines and the ongoing spatial spread of the fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). This fungus has recently caused severe amphibian declines in north-western Europe and currently threatens Palearctic salamander diversity. 
3. Available evidence suggests that a Bsal outbreak in a fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population will lead to its rapid extirpation. Treatments such as anti-fungals or probiotics would need to effectively interrupt transmission (reduce probability of infection by nearly 90%) in order to reduce the risk of host extirpation and successfully eradicate the pathogen. 
4. Improving the survival of infected hosts is most likely to be detrimental as it increases the potential for pathogen transmission and spread. Active removal of a large proportion of the host population has some potential to locally eradicate Bsal and interrupt its spread, depending on the presence of Bsal reservoirs and on the host's spatial dynamics, which should therefore represent research priorities. 
5. Synthesis and applications. Mitigation of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans epidemics in susceptible host species is highly challenging, requiring effective interruption of transmission and radical removal of host individuals. More generally, our study illustrates the advantages of framing conservation science directly in the management decision context, rather than adapting to it a posteriori.},
  author       = {Canessa, Stefano and Bozzuto, Claudio and Campbell Grant, Evan H and Cruickshank, Sam S and Fisher, Matthew C and Koella, Jacob C and Lötters, Stefan and Martel, An and Pasmans, Frank and Scheele, Ben C and van der Sluijs, Adriana Marieke and Steinfartz, Sebastian and Schmidt, Benedikt R},
  issn         = {0021-8901},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY},
  keywords     = {amphibian,Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans,chytrid fungus,conservation management,disease spread,epidemiology,host-pathogen,integral projection model,salamander,transmission,INTEGRAL PROJECTION MODELS,BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-SALAMANDRIVORANS,STRONG INFERENCE,CHYTRID FUNGUS,SP-NOV,CONSERVATION,MANAGEMENT,CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,INFORMATION,EXTINCTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1987--1996},
  title        = {Decision-making for mitigating wildlife diseases : from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13089},
  volume       = {55},
  year         = {2018},
}

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