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Changing to a vegetarian diet reduces the body creatine pool in omnivorous women, but appears not to affect carnitine and carnosine homeostasis : a randomised trial

Laura Blancquaert (UGent) , Audrey Baguet (UGent) , Tine Bex (UGent) , Anneke Volkaert (UGent) , Inge Everaert (UGent) , Joris Delanghe (UGent) , Mirko Petrovic (UGent) , Chris Vervaet (UGent) , Stefaan De Henauw (UGent) , Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, et al.
(2018) BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 119(7). p.759-770
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Abstract
Balanced vegetarian diets are popular, although they are nearly absent in creatine and carnosine and contain considerably less carnitine than non-vegetarian diets. Few longitudinal intervention studies investigating the effect of a vegetarian diet on the availability of these compounds currently exist. We aimed to investigate the effect of transiently switching omnivores onto a vegetarian diet for 6 months on muscle and plasma creatine, carnitine and carnosine homeostasis. In a 6-month intervention, forty omnivorous women were ascribed to three groups: continued omnivorous diet (control, n 10), vegetarian diet without supplementation (Veg+Pla, n 15) and vegetarian diet combined with daily beta-alanine (0.8\p=n-\0.4 g/d) and creatine supplementation (1 g creatine monohydrate/d) (Veg+Suppl, n 15). Before (0 months; 0M), after 3 months (3M) and 6 months (6M), a fasted venous blood sample and 24-h urine was collected, and muscle carnosine content was determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-MRS). Muscle biopsies were obtained at 0M and 3M. Plasma creatine and muscle total creatine content declined from 0M to 3M in Veg+Pla (P=0.013 and P=0.009, respectively), whereas plasma creatine increased from 0M in Veg+Suppl (P=0.004). None of the carnitine-related compounds in plasma or muscle showed a significant time X group interaction effect. H-1-MRS-determined muscle carnosine content was unchanged over 6M in control and Veg+Pla, but increased in Veg+Suppl in soleus (P > 0.001) and gastrocnemius (P=0.001) muscle. To conclude, the body creatine pool declined over a 3-month vegetarian diet in omnivorous women, which was ameliorated when accompanied by low-dose dietary creatine supplementation. Carnitine and carnosine homeostasis was unaffected by a 3- or 6-month vegetarian diet, respectively.
Keywords
Lacto-ovo-vegetarians: β-Alanine: Homeostasis: Supplements, BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION, HUMAN SKELETAL-MUSCLE, VITAMIN-D DEFICIENCY, EXERCISE PERFORMANCE, MEAT, BIOMARKERS, HUMANS, TRANSPORT, FATIGUE, HEALTH

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Chicago
Blancquaert, Laura, Audrey Baguet, Tine Bex, Anneke Volkaert, Inge Everaert, Joris Delanghe, Mirko Petrovic, et al. 2018. “Changing to a Vegetarian Diet Reduces the Body Creatine Pool in Omnivorous Women, but Appears Not to Affect Carnitine and Carnosine Homeostasis : a Randomised Trial.” British Journal of Nutrition 119 (7): 759–770.
APA
Blancquaert, L., Baguet, A., Bex, T., Volkaert, A., Everaert, I., Delanghe, J., Petrovic, M., et al. (2018). Changing to a vegetarian diet reduces the body creatine pool in omnivorous women, but appears not to affect carnitine and carnosine homeostasis : a randomised trial. BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 119(7), 759–770.
Vancouver
1.
Blancquaert L, Baguet A, Bex T, Volkaert A, Everaert I, Delanghe J, et al. Changing to a vegetarian diet reduces the body creatine pool in omnivorous women, but appears not to affect carnitine and carnosine homeostasis : a randomised trial. BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 2018;119(7):759–70.
MLA
Blancquaert, Laura, Audrey Baguet, Tine Bex, et al. “Changing to a Vegetarian Diet Reduces the Body Creatine Pool in Omnivorous Women, but Appears Not to Affect Carnitine and Carnosine Homeostasis : a Randomised Trial.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 119.7 (2018): 759–770. Print.
@article{8557732,
  abstract     = {Balanced vegetarian diets are popular, although they are nearly absent in creatine and carnosine and contain considerably less carnitine than non-vegetarian diets. Few longitudinal intervention studies investigating the effect of a vegetarian diet on the availability of these compounds currently exist. We aimed to investigate the effect of transiently switching omnivores onto a vegetarian diet for 6 months on muscle and plasma creatine, carnitine and carnosine homeostasis. In a 6-month intervention, forty omnivorous women were ascribed to three groups: continued omnivorous diet (control, n 10), vegetarian diet without supplementation (Veg+Pla, n 15) and vegetarian diet combined with daily beta-alanine (0.8{\textbackslash}p=n-{\textbackslash}0.4 g/d) and creatine supplementation (1 g creatine monohydrate/d) (Veg+Suppl, n 15). Before (0 months; 0M), after 3 months (3M) and 6 months (6M), a fasted venous blood sample and 24-h urine was collected, and muscle carnosine content was determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-MRS). Muscle biopsies were obtained at 0M and 3M. Plasma creatine and muscle total creatine content declined from 0M to 3M in Veg+Pla (P=0.013 and P=0.009, respectively), whereas plasma creatine increased from 0M in Veg+Suppl (P=0.004). None of the carnitine-related compounds in plasma or muscle showed a significant time X group interaction effect. H-1-MRS-determined muscle carnosine content was unchanged over 6M in control and Veg+Pla, but increased in Veg+Suppl in soleus (P {\textrangle} 0.001) and gastrocnemius (P=0.001) muscle. To conclude, the body creatine pool declined over a 3-month vegetarian diet in omnivorous women, which was ameliorated when accompanied by low-dose dietary creatine supplementation. Carnitine and carnosine homeostasis was unaffected by a 3- or 6-month vegetarian diet, respectively.},
  author       = {Blancquaert, Laura and Baguet, Audrey and Bex, Tine and Volkaert, Anneke and Everaert, Inge and Delanghe, Joris and Petrovic, Mirko and Vervaet, Chris and De Henauw, Stefaan and Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru and Greenhaff, Paul and Derave, Wim},
  issn         = {0007-1145},
  journal      = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {Lacto-ovo-vegetarians: \ensuremath{\beta}-Alanine: Homeostasis: Supplements,BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION,HUMAN SKELETAL-MUSCLE,VITAMIN-D DEFICIENCY,EXERCISE PERFORMANCE,MEAT,BIOMARKERS,HUMANS,TRANSPORT,FATIGUE,HEALTH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {759--770},
  title        = {Changing to a vegetarian diet reduces the body creatine pool in omnivorous women, but appears not to affect carnitine and carnosine homeostasis : a randomised trial},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s000711451800017x},
  volume       = {119},
  year         = {2018},
}

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