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Use of failure-to-rescue to identify international variation in postoperative care in low-, middle- and high-income countries : a 7-day cohort study of elective surgery

(2017) BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA. 119(2). p.258-266
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Abstract
Background. The incidence and impact of postoperative complications are poorly described. Failure-to-rescue, the rate of death following complications, is an important quality measure for perioperative care but has not been investigated across multiple health care systems. Methods. We analysed data collected during the International Surgical Outcomes Study, an international 7-day cohort study of adults undergoing elective inpatient surgery. Hospitals were ranked by quintiles according to surgical procedural volume (Q1 lowest to Q5 highest). For each quintile we assessed in-hospital complications rates, mortality, and failure-to-rescue. We repeated this analysis ranking hospitals by risk-adjusted complication rates (Q1 lowest to Q5 highest). Results. A total of 44 814 patients from 474 hospitals in 27 low-, middle-, and high-income countries were available for analysis. Of these, 7508 (17%) developed one or more postoperative complication, with 207 deaths in hospital (0.5%), giving an overall failure-to-rescue rate of 2.8%. When hospitals were ranked in quintiles by procedural volume, we identified a threefold variation in mortality (Q1: 0.6% vs Q5: 0.2%) and a two-fold variation in failure-to-rescue (Q1: 3.6% vs Q5: 1.7%). Ranking hospitals in quintiles by risk-adjusted complication rate further confirmed the presence of important variations in failureto- rescue, indicating differences between hospitals in the risk of death among patients after they develop complications. Conclusions. Comparison of failure-to-rescue rates across health care systems suggests the presence of preventable postoperative deaths. Using such metrics, developing nations could benefit from a data-driven approach to quality improvement, which has proved effective in high-income countries.
Keywords
HIGH-RISK SURGERY, HOSPITAL MORTALITY, SURGICAL MORTALITY, PATIENT, MORTALITY, CANCER-SURGERY, GLOBAL HEALTH, COMPLICATIONS, OUTCOMES, QUALITY, VOLUME, postoperative care, methods, postoperative care, statistics and, numerical data, surgical procedures, operative, mortality, postoperative, care, methods

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MLA
Ahmad, T. et al. “Use of Failure-to-rescue to Identify International Variation in Postoperative Care in Low-, Middle- and High-income Countries : a 7-day Cohort Study of Elective Surgery.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA 119.2 (2017): 258–266. Print.
APA
Ahmad, T., Bouwman, R. A., Grigoras, I., Aldecoa, C., Hofer, C., Hoeft, A., Holt, P., et al. (2017). Use of failure-to-rescue to identify international variation in postoperative care in low-, middle- and high-income countries : a 7-day cohort study of elective surgery. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 119(2), 258–266.
Chicago author-date
Ahmad, T., R. A. Bouwman, I. Grigoras, C. Aldecoa, C. Hofer, A. Hoeft, P. Holt, et al. 2017. “Use of Failure-to-rescue to Identify International Variation in Postoperative Care in Low-, Middle- and High-income Countries : a 7-day Cohort Study of Elective Surgery.” British Journal of Anaesthesia 119 (2): 258–266.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ahmad, T., R. A. Bouwman, I. Grigoras, C. Aldecoa, C. Hofer, A. Hoeft, P. Holt, L. A. Fleisher, W. Buhre, R. M. Pearse, Marissa Ferguson, Michael MacMahon, Mark Shulman, Ritchie Cherian, Helen Currow, Kathirgamanathan Kanathiban, David Gillespie, Edward Pathmanathan, Katherine Phillips, Jenifer Reynolds, Joanne Rowley, Jeanene Douglas, Ross Kerridge, Sameer Garg, Michael Bennett, Megha Jain, David Alcock, Nico Terblanche, Rochelle Cotter, Kate Leslie, Marcelle Stewart, Nicolette Zingerle, Antony Clyde, Oliver Hambidge, Adam Rehak, Sharon Cotterell, Wilson Binh Quan Huynh, Timothy McCulloch, Erez Ben-Menachem, Thomas Egan, Jennifer Cope, Richard Halliwell, Paul Fellinger, Markus Haisjackl, Simone Haselberger, Caroline Holaubek, Paul Lichtenegger, Florian Scherz, Werner Schmid, Franz Hoffer, Veronika Cakova, Andreas Eichwalder, Norbert Fischbach, Reinhold Klug, Elisabeth Schneider, Martin Vesely, Reinhart Wickenhauser, Karl Gernot Grubmueller, Marion Leitgeb, Friedrich Lang, Nancy Toro, Marlene Bauer, Friedrich Laengle, Claudia Haberl, Thomas Mayrhofer, Christoph Trybus, Christian Buerkle, Karin Forstner, Reinhard Germann, Harald Rinoesl, Elke Schindler, Ernst Trampitsch, Gerhard Bogner, Daniel Dankl, Martin Duenser, Gerhard Fritsch, Ilse Gradwohl-Matis, Andreas Hartmann, Thomas Hoelzenbein, Tarkan Jaeger, Franz Landauer, Gregor Lindl, Michael Lux, Johannes Steindl, Ottokar Stundner, Christian Szabo, Jawad Bidgoli, Hans Verdoodt, Patrice Forget, David Kahn, Fernande Lois, Mona Momeni, Caroline Pregardien, Audrey Pospiech, Arnaud Steyaert, Laurent Veevaete, Dirk De Kegel, Karen De Jongh, Luc Foubert, Carine Smitz, Marcel Vercauteren, Jan Poelaert, Veerle Van Mossevelde, Jacques Abeloos, Stefaan Bouchez, Marc Coppens, Luc De Baerdemaeker, Isabel Deblaere, Ann De Bruyne, Stefan De Hert, Kristine Fonck, Bjorn Heyse, Tom Jacobs, Koen Lapage, Anneliese Moerman, Martine Neckebroek, Aliaksandra Parashchanka, Nathalie Roels, Nancy Van Den Eynde, Michaël Vandenheuvel, Jurgen Van Limmen, Ann Vanluchene, Caroline Vanpeteghem, Patrick Wouters, PIET WYFFELS, Christel Huygens, Punitha Vandenbempt, Marc Van de Velde, Dimitri Dylst, Bruno Janssen, Evelien Schreurs, Fabia Berganton Aleixo, Keulle Candido, Hugo Dias Batista, Mario Guimaraes, Jaqueline Guizeline, Joao Hoffmann, Suzana Lobo, Francisco Ricardo Marques Lobo, Vinicius Nascimento, Katia Nishiyama, Lucas Pazetto, Daniela Souza, Rodrigo Souza Rodrigues, Ana Maria Vilela dos Santos, Jaquelline Jardim, Luiz Marcelo Sa Malbouisson, Joao Silva, Paulo do Nascimento Junior, Thalissa Herminia Baio, Gabriel Isaac Pereira de Castro, Henri Roger Watanabe Oliveira, Cristina Prata Amendola, Gutemberg Cardoso, Daniela Ortega, Ana Flavia Brotto, Mirella Cristine De Oliveira, Alvaro Rea-Neto, Fernando Dias, Maria Eduarda Travi, Luiza Zerman, Pedro Azambuja, Marcos Freitas Knibel, Antonio Martins, William Almeida, Calim Neder Neto, Maria Angela Tardelli, Eliana Caser, Marcio Machado, Crisitiano Aguzzoli, Sergio Baldisserotto, Fernanda Beck Tabajara, Fernanda Bettega, La Hore Correa Rodrigues Junior, Julia de Gasperi, Lais 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Wu, Guohao Xie, Kai Zhang, Bing Zhao, Xianfu Lu, Feifei Chen, Qisheng Liang, Xuewu Lin, Yunzhi Ling, Gang Liu, Jing Tao, Lu Yang, Jialong Zhou, Fumei Chen, Zhonggui Cheng, Hanying Dai, Yunlin Feng, Benchao Hou, Haixia Gong, Chun Hua Hu, Haijin Huang, Jian Huang, Zhangjie Jiang, Mengyuan Li, Jiamei Lin, Mei Liu, Weicheng Liu, Zhen Liu, Zhiyi Liu, Foquan Luo, Longxian Ma, Jia Min, Xiaoyun Shi, Zhiping Song, Xianwen Wan, Yingfen Xiong, Lin Xu, Shuangjia Yang, Qin Zhang, Hongyan Zhang, Huaigen Zhang, Xuekang Zhang, Lili Zhao, Weihong Zhao, Weilu Zhao, Xiaoping Zhu, Yun Bai, Linbi Chen, Sijia Chen, Qinxue Dai, Wujun Geng, Kunyuan Han, Xin He, Luping Huang, Binbin Ji, Danyun Jia, Shenhui Jin, Qianjun Li, Dongdong Liang, Shan Luo, Lulu Lwang, Yunchang Mo, Yuanyuan Pan, Xinyu Qi, Meizi Qian, Jinling Qin, Yelong Ren, Yiyi Shi, Junlu Wang, Junkai Wang, Leilei Wang, Junjie Xie, Yixiu Yan, Yurui Yao, Mingxiao Zhang, Jiashi Zhao, Xiuxiu Zhuang, Yanqiu Ai, Fang Du, Long He, Ledan Huang, Zhisong Li, Huijuan Li, Yetong Li, Liwei Li, Su Meng, Yazhuo Yuan, Enman Zhang, Jie Zhang, Shuna Zhao, Zhenrong Ji, Ling Pei, Li Wang, Chen Chen, Beibei Dong, Jing Li, Ziqiang Miao, Hongying Mu, Chao Qin, Lin Su, Zhiting Wen, Keliang Xie, Yonghao Yu, Fang Yuan, Xianwen Hu, Ye Zhang, Wangpin Xiao, Zhipeng Zhu, Qingqing Dai, Kaiwen Fu, Rong Hu, Xiaolan Hu, Song Huang, Yaqi Li, Yingping Liang, Shuchun Yu, Zheng Guo, Yan Jing, Na Tang, Jie Wu, Dajiang Yuan, Ruilin Zhang, Xiaoying Zhao, Yuhong Li, Hui-Ping Bai, Chun-Xiao Liu, Fei-Fei Liu, Wei Ren, Xiu-Li Wang, Guan-Jie Xu, Na Hu, Bo Li, Yangwen Ou, Yongzhong Tang, Shanglong Yao, Shihai Zhang, Cui-Cui Kong, Bei Liu, Tianlong Wang, Wei Xiao, Bo Lu, Yanfei Xia, Jiali Zhou, Fang Cai, Pushan Chen, Shuangfei Hu, Hongfa Wang, Jie Wu, Qiong Xu, Liu Hu, Liang Jing, Jing Li, Bin Li, Qiang Liu, Yuejiang Liu, Xinjian Lu, Zhen Dan Peng, Xiaodong Qiu, Quan Ren, Youliang Tong, Zhen Wang, Jin Wang, Yazhou Wen, Qiong Wu, Jiangyan Xia, Jue Xie, Xiapei Xiong, Shixia Xu, 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Leona Wilson, Yuan Hsuan Chang, Julia Foley, Carolyn Fowler, Jonathan Panckhurst, Rachel Sara, Francois Stapelberg, Doug Campbell, Veronica Cherrett, Donna Louise Ganter, Davina McAllister, Lloyd McCann, Julia Foley, Fiona Gilmour, Rachelle Lumsden, Mark Moores, Sue Olliff, Elitza Sardareva, Francois Stapelberg, Joyce Tai, Matthew Wikner, Christopher Wong, Mark Chaddock, Carolyn Czepanski, Patrick McKendry, Daniel Polakovic, Daniel Polakovich, Axe Robert, Margarita Tormo Belda, Tracy Norton, Francois Stapelberg, Fadhel Alherz, Lisa Barneto, Alberto Ramirez, Ahmed Sayeed, Nicola Smith, Cambell Bennett, Shane McQuoid, Rachel Bell, Tracy-Lee Jansen, Zin Nico, John Scott, David Freschini, Angela Freschini, Brian Hopkins, Lara Manson, Deon Stoltz, Alexander Bates, Simon Davis, Victoria Freeman, Lynette McGaughran, Maya Williams, Swarna Baskar Sharma, Tom Burrows, Kelly Byrne, Duane English, Robert Johnson, Kiew Chai Law, Brendon Manikkam, Davina McAllister, Shaun Naidoo, Margot Rumball, Nicola Whittle, Romilla Franks, Hannah Gibson-Lapsley, Davina McAllister, Ryan Salter, Dean Walsh, Richard Cooper, and Katherine Perry. 2017. “Use of Failure-to-rescue to Identify International Variation in Postoperative Care in Low-, Middle- and High-income Countries : a 7-day Cohort Study of Elective Surgery.” British Journal of Anaesthesia 119 (2): 258–266.
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Ahmad T, Bouwman RA, Grigoras I, Aldecoa C, Hofer C, Hoeft A, et al. Use of failure-to-rescue to identify international variation in postoperative care in low-, middle- and high-income countries : a 7-day cohort study of elective surgery. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press; 2017;119(2):258–66.
IEEE
[1]
T. Ahmad et al., “Use of failure-to-rescue to identify international variation in postoperative care in low-, middle- and high-income countries : a 7-day cohort study of elective surgery,” BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 258–266, 2017.
@article{8557688,
  abstract     = {Background. The incidence and impact of postoperative complications are poorly described. Failure-to-rescue, the rate of death following complications, is an important quality measure for perioperative care but has not been investigated across multiple health care systems. Methods. We analysed data collected during the International Surgical Outcomes Study, an international 7-day cohort study of adults undergoing elective inpatient surgery. Hospitals were ranked by quintiles according to surgical procedural volume (Q1 lowest to Q5 highest). For each quintile we assessed in-hospital complications rates, mortality, and failure-to-rescue. We repeated this analysis ranking hospitals by risk-adjusted complication rates (Q1 lowest to Q5 highest). Results. A total of 44 814 patients from 474 hospitals in 27 low-, middle-, and high-income countries were available for analysis. Of these, 7508 (17%) developed one or more postoperative complication, with 207 deaths in hospital (0.5%), giving an overall failure-to-rescue rate of 2.8%. When hospitals were ranked in quintiles by procedural volume, we identified a threefold variation in mortality (Q1: 0.6% vs Q5: 0.2%) and a two-fold variation in failure-to-rescue (Q1: 3.6% vs Q5: 1.7%). Ranking hospitals in quintiles by risk-adjusted complication rate further confirmed the presence of important variations in failureto- rescue, indicating differences between hospitals in the risk of death among patients after they develop complications. Conclusions. Comparison of failure-to-rescue rates across health care systems suggests the presence of preventable postoperative deaths. Using such metrics, developing nations could benefit from a data-driven approach to quality improvement, which has proved effective in high-income countries.},
  author       = {Ahmad, T. and Bouwman, R. A. and Grigoras, I. and Aldecoa, C. and Hofer, C. and Hoeft, A. and Holt, P. and Fleisher, L. A. and Buhre, W. and Pearse, R. M. and Ferguson, Marissa and MacMahon, Michael and Shulman, Mark and Cherian, Ritchie and Currow, Helen and Kanathiban, Kathirgamanathan and Gillespie, David and Pathmanathan, Edward and Phillips, Katherine and Reynolds, Jenifer and Rowley, Joanne and Douglas, Jeanene and Kerridge, Ross and Garg, Sameer and Bennett, Michael and Jain, Megha and Alcock, David and Terblanche, Nico and Cotter, Rochelle and Leslie, Kate and Stewart, Marcelle and Zingerle, Nicolette and Clyde, Antony and Hambidge, Oliver and Rehak, Adam and Cotterell, Sharon and Huynh, Wilson Binh Quan and McCulloch, Timothy and Ben-Menachem, Erez and Egan, Thomas and Cope, Jennifer and Halliwell, Richard and Fellinger, Paul and Haisjackl, Markus and Haselberger, Simone and Holaubek, Caroline and Lichtenegger, Paul and Scherz, Florian and Schmid, Werner and Hoffer, Franz and Cakova, Veronika and Eichwalder, Andreas and Fischbach, Norbert and Klug, Reinhold and Schneider, Elisabeth and Vesely, Martin and Wickenhauser, Reinhart and Grubmueller, Karl Gernot and Leitgeb, Marion and Lang, Friedrich and Toro, Nancy and Bauer, Marlene and Laengle, Friedrich and Haberl, Claudia and Mayrhofer, Thomas and Trybus, Christoph and Buerkle, Christian and Forstner, Karin and Germann, Reinhard and Rinoesl, Harald and Schindler, Elke and Trampitsch, Ernst and Bogner, Gerhard and Dankl, Daniel and Duenser, Martin and Fritsch, Gerhard and Gradwohl-Matis, Ilse and Hartmann, Andreas and Hoelzenbein, Thomas and Jaeger, Tarkan and Landauer, Franz and Lindl, Gregor and Lux, Michael and Steindl, Johannes and Stundner, Ottokar and Szabo, Christian and Bidgoli, Jawad and Verdoodt, Hans and Forget, Patrice and Kahn, David and Lois, Fernande and Momeni, Mona and Pregardien, Caroline and Pospiech, Audrey and Steyaert, Arnaud and Veevaete, Laurent and De Kegel, Dirk and De Jongh, Karen and Foubert, Luc and Smitz, Carine and Vercauteren, Marcel and Poelaert, Jan and Van Mossevelde, Veerle and Abeloos, Jacques and Bouchez, Stefaan and Coppens, Marc and De Baerdemaeker, Luc and Deblaere, Isabel and De Bruyne, Ann and De Hert, Stefan and Fonck, Kristine and Heyse, Bjorn and Jacobs, Tom and Lapage, Koen and Moerman, Anneliese and Neckebroek, Martine and Parashchanka, Aliaksandra and Roels, Nathalie and Van Den Eynde, Nancy and Vandenheuvel, Michaël and Van Limmen, Jurgen and Vanluchene, Ann and Vanpeteghem, Caroline and Wouters, Patrick and WYFFELS, PIET and Huygens, Christel and Vandenbempt, Punitha and Van de Velde, Marc and Dylst, Dimitri and Janssen, Bruno and Schreurs, Evelien and Aleixo, Fabia Berganton and Candido, Keulle and Batista, Hugo Dias and Guimaraes, Mario and Guizeline, Jaqueline and Hoffmann, Joao and Lobo, Suzana and Marques Lobo, Francisco Ricardo and Nascimento, Vinicius and Nishiyama, Katia and Pazetto, Lucas and Souza, Daniela and Rodrigues, Rodrigo Souza and Vilela dos Santos, Ana Maria and Jardim, Jaquelline and Sa Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo and Silva, Joao and do Nascimento Junior, Paulo and Baio, Thalissa Herminia and Pereira de Castro, Gabriel Isaac and Watanabe Oliveira, Henri Roger and Amendola, Cristina Prata and Cardoso, Gutemberg and Ortega, Daniela and Brotto, Ana Flavia and De Oliveira, Mirella Cristine and Rea-Neto, Alvaro and Dias, Fernando and Travi, Maria Eduarda and Zerman, Luiza and Azambuja, Pedro and Knibel, Marcos Freitas and Martins, Antonio and Almeida, William and Neder Neto, Calim and Tardelli, Maria Angela and Caser, Eliana and Machado, Marcio and Aguzzoli, Crisitiano and Baldisserotto, Sergio and Tabajara, Fernanda Beck and Bettega, Fernanda and Rodrigues Junior, La Hore Correa and de Gasperi, Julia and Faina, Lais and Nolasco, Marcos Farias and da Costa Fischer, Bruna Ferreira and de Campos Ferreira, Mariana Fosch and Hartmann, Cristina and Kliemann, Marta and Ribeiro, Gustavo Luis Hubert and Fraga, Julia Merladete and Netto, Thiago Motta and Pozza, Laura Valduga and Wendling, Paulo Rafael and Azevedo, Caroline and Garcia, Juliana and Lopes, 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Albert and Yagnik, Anmol and Alvares, Danielle and Choi, Stephen and Dwyer, Heather and Flores, Kathrina and McCartney, Colin and Somascanthan, Priya and Beattie, Scott and Carroll, Jo and Pazmino-Canizares, Janneth and Wijeysundera, Duminda and Ami, Noam and Chan, Vincent and Perlas, Anahi and Argue, Ruth and Huang, Yang and Lavis, Katie and Mayson, Kelly and Cao, Ying and Gao, Hong and Hu, Tingju and Lv, Jie and Yang, Jian and Yang, Yang and Zhong, Yi and Zhou, Jing and Zou, Xiaohua and He, Miao and Li, Xiaoying and Luo, Dihuan and Wang, Haiying and Yu, Tian and Chen, Liyong and Wang, Lijun and Cai, Yunfei and Cao, Zhongming and Li, Yanling and Lian, Jiaxin and Sun, Haiyun and Wang, Sheng and Wang, Zhipeng and Wang, Kenru and Zhu, Yi and Du, Xindan and Fan, Hao and Fu, Yunbin and Huang, Lixia and Huang, Yanming and Hwan, Haifang and Luo, Hong and Qu, Pi-Sheng and Tao, Fan and Wang, Zhen and Wang, Guoxiang and Wang, Shun and Zhang, Yan and Zhang, Xiaolin and Chen, Chao and Wang, 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Miao, Fangfang and Ouyang, Lingling and Qian, Lu and Shen, Conyu and Sun, Yu and Wang, Yuting and Wang, Dong and Wu, Chao and Xu, Liyuan and Yuan, Jiaqi and Zhang, Lina and Zhang, Huan and Zhang, Yapping and Zhao, Jinning and Zhao, Chong and Zhao, Lei and Zheng, Tianzhao and Zhou, Dachun and Zhou, Haiyan and Zhou, Ce and Lu, Kaizhi and Zhao, Ting and He, Changlin and Chen, Hong and Chen, Shasha and Cheng, Baoli and He, Jie and Jin, Lin and Li, Caixia and Li, Hui and Pan, Yuanming and Shi, Yugang and Wen, Xiao Hong and Wu, Shuijing and Xie, Guohao and Zhang, Kai and Zhao, Bing and Lu, Xianfu and Chen, Feifei and Liang, Qisheng and Lin, Xuewu and Ling, Yunzhi and Liu, Gang and Tao, Jing and Yang, Lu and Zhou, Jialong and Chen, Fumei and Cheng, Zhonggui and Dai, Hanying and Feng, Yunlin and Hou, Benchao and Gong, Haixia and Hu, Chun Hua and Huang, Haijin and Huang, Jian and Jiang, Zhangjie and Li, Mengyuan and Lin, Jiamei and Liu, Mei and Liu, Weicheng and Liu, Zhen and Liu, Zhiyi and Luo, Foquan and Ma, Longxian and Min, Jia and Shi, Xiaoyun and Song, Zhiping and Wan, Xianwen and Xiong, Yingfen and Xu, Lin and Yang, Shuangjia and Zhang, Qin and Zhang, Hongyan and Zhang, Huaigen and Zhang, Xuekang and Zhao, Lili and Zhao, Weihong and Zhao, Weilu and Zhu, Xiaoping and Bai, Yun and Chen, Linbi and Chen, Sijia and Dai, Qinxue and Geng, Wujun and Han, Kunyuan and He, Xin and Huang, Luping and Ji, Binbin and Jia, Danyun and Jin, Shenhui and Li, Qianjun and Liang, Dongdong and Luo, Shan and Lwang, Lulu and Mo, Yunchang and Pan, Yuanyuan and Qi, Xinyu and Qian, Meizi and Qin, Jinling and Ren, Yelong and Shi, Yiyi and Wang, Junlu and Wang, Junkai and Wang, Leilei and Xie, Junjie and Yan, Yixiu and Yao, Yurui and Zhang, Mingxiao and Zhao, Jiashi and Zhuang, Xiuxiu and Ai, Yanqiu and Du, Fang and He, Long and Huang, Ledan and Li, Zhisong and Li, Huijuan and Li, Yetong and Li, Liwei and Meng, Su and Yuan, Yazhuo and Zhang, Enman and Zhang, Jie and Zhao, Shuna and Ji, Zhenrong and Pei, Ling and Wang, Li and Chen, Chen and Dong, Beibei and Li, Jing and Miao, Ziqiang and Mu, Hongying and Qin, Chao and Su, Lin and Wen, Zhiting and Xie, Keliang and Yu, Yonghao and Yuan, Fang and Hu, Xianwen and Zhang, Ye and Xiao, Wangpin and Zhu, Zhipeng and Dai, Qingqing and Fu, Kaiwen and Hu, Rong and Hu, Xiaolan and Huang, Song and Li, Yaqi and Liang, Yingping and Yu, Shuchun and Guo, Zheng and Jing, Yan and Tang, Na and Wu, Jie and Yuan, Dajiang and Zhang, Ruilin and Zhao, Xiaoying and Li, Yuhong and Bai, Hui-Ping and Liu, Chun-Xiao and Liu, Fei-Fei and Ren, Wei and Wang, Xiu-Li and Xu, Guan-Jie and Hu, Na and Li, Bo and Ou, Yangwen and Tang, Yongzhong and Yao, Shanglong and Zhang, Shihai and Kong, Cui-Cui and Liu, Bei and Wang, Tianlong and Xiao, Wei and Lu, Bo and Xia, Yanfei and Zhou, Jiali and Cai, Fang and Chen, Pushan and Hu, Shuangfei and Wang, Hongfa and Wu, Jie and Xu, Qiong and Hu, Liu and Jing, Liang and Li, Jing and Li, Bin and Liu, Qiang and Liu, Yuejiang and 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Lundsgaard, Rune Sarauw and Amstrup-Hansen, Louise and Hovendal, Claus and Larsen, Michael and Lenstrup, Mette and Kobborg, Tina and Larsen, Jens Rolighed and Pedersen, Anette Barbre and Larsen, Jens Rolighed and Smith, Soren Hubertz and Oestervig, Rebecca Monett and Rasmussen, Lars and Afshari, Arash and Andersen, Cheme and Ekelund, Kim and Secher, Erik Lilja and Brandsborg, Birgitte and Beloeil, Helene and Lasocki, Sigismond and Venara, Aurelien and Biais, Matthieu and Ouattara, Alexandre and Sineus, Marlene and Molliex, Serge and Legouge, Marie Lim and Wallet, Florent and Tesniere, Antoine and Gaudin, Christophe and Lehur, Paul and Forsans, Emma and de Rudnicki, Stephane and Maudet, Valerie Serra and Mutter, Didier and Sojod, Ghassan and Ouaissi, Mehdi and Regimbeau, Jean-Marc and Futier, Emmanuel and Desbordes, Jacques and Comptaer, Nicolas and el Manser, Diae and Ethgen, Sabine and Lebuffe, Gilles and Auer, Patrick and Haertl, Christine and Deja, Maria and Legashov, Kirill and 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and Georgopoulou, Eleni and Katsika, Eleni and Psarras, Kyriakos and Synekidou, Eirini and Verroiotou, Maria and Vetsiou, Evangelia and Zaimi, Donika and Anagnou, Athina and Apostolou, Konstantinos and Melissopoulou, Theodora and Rozenberg, Theophilos and Tsigris, Christos and Boutsikos, Georgios and Kalles, Vasileios and Kotsalas, Nikolaos and Lavdaiou, Christina and Paikou, Fotini and Panagou, Georgia-Laura and Spring, Anna and Arvaniti, Kostoula and Botis, Ioannis and Drimala, Maria and Georgakakis, Georgios and Kiourtzieva, Ellada and Ntouma, Panagiota and Prionas, Apostolos and Xouplidis, Kyriakos and Dalampini, Eleftheria and Giannaki, Chrysavgi and Iasonidou, Christina and Ioannidis, Orestis and Lavrentieva, Athina and Lavrentieva, Athena and Papageorgiou, George and Kokkinoy, Maria and Stafylaraki, Maria and Gaitanakis, Stylianos and Karydakis, Periclis and Paltoglou, Josef and Ponireas, Panagiotis and Chaloulis, Panagiotis and Provatidis, Athanasios and Sousana, Anisoglou and 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Ling and Ma, Shu Kai and Kaushik, Shuchi and Shah, Bhagyesh and Shah, Dhiren and Shah, Sanjay and Ar, Praburaj and Muthuchellappan, Radhakrishnan and Agarwal, Vandana and Divatia, Jigeeshu and Kulkarni, Atul and Mishra, Sanghamitra and Nimje, Ganesh and Pande, Swati and Savarkar, Sukhada and Shrivastava, Aditi and Thomas, Martin and Yegnaram, Shashikant and Hidayatullah, Rahmat and Chandra, Susilo and Tantri, Aida and Puar, Nasman and Niman, Sumara and Indra, Imai and Hamzah, Zulkarnain and Yuliana, Annika and Abidin, Ucu Nurhadiat and Dursin, Ade Nurkacan and Kurnia, Andri and Susanti, Ade and Handayani, Dini and Alit, Mahaalit Aribawa and Arya, Aryabiantara and Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde Agung and Utara, Utara Hartawan and Wid, Widnyana Made and Wima, Semarawima and Wir, Wiryana Made and Jehosua, Brillyan and Kaunang, Jonathan and Lantang, Eka Yudha and Najoan, Rini and Waworuntu, Neil and Awad, Hadi and Fuad, Akram and Geddoa, Emad and Geddoa, Burair and Khalaf, Abdel Razzaq and Al 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Baroselli, Antonio and Spagnesi, Lorenzo and Arrigo, Mario and Benevento, Angelo and Bottini, Corrado and Cannavo, Maurizio and Gastaldi, Christian and Marchesi, Alessandro and Pascazio, Angelantonio and Pata, Francesco and Pozzi, Emilio and Premoli, Alberto and Tessera, Gaetano and Boschi, Luca and D'Andrea, Rocco and Ghignone, Federico and Poggioli, Gilberto and Sibilio, Andrea and Taffurelli, Mario and Ugolini, Giampaolo and Ab Majid, Mohd Azuan and Ab Rahman, Rusnah and Joseph, James and Pathan, Furquan and Shah, Mohammad Hafizshah Sybil and Yap, Huey Ling and Cheah, Seleen and Chin, Im Im and Looi, Ji Keon and Tan, Siew Ching and Visvalingam, Sheshendrasurian and Kwok, Fan Yin and Lee, Chew Kiok and Tan, Tse Siang and Wong, Sze Meng and Abdullah, Noor Hairiza and Liew, Chiat Fong and Luxuman, Lovenia and Zin, Nor Hafizah Mohd and Norddin, Muhamad Faiz and Alias, Raja Liza Raja and Wong, Juan Yong and Yong, Johnny and Bin Mustapha, Mohd Tarmimi and Chan, Weng Ken and Dzulkipli, Norizawati and Kuan, Pei Xuan and Lee, Yew Ching and Alias, Anita and Guok, Eng Ching and Jee, Chiun Chen and Ramon, Brian Rhadamantyne and Wong, Cheng Weng and Ghafar, Fara Nur Idayu Abd and Aziz, Faizal Zuhri and Hussain, Nabilah and Lee, Hooi Sean and Sukawi, Ismawaty and Woon, Yuan Liang and Hadi, Husni Zaeem Abd and Azam, Ummi Azmira Ahmad and Alias, Abdul Hafiz and Kesut, Saiful Aizar and Lee, Jun May and Ooi, Dar Vin and Sulaiman, Hetty Ayuni and Lih, Tengku Alini Tengku and Mansor, Marzida and Veerakumaran, Jeyaganesh and Luna, Pastor and Rojas, Eder and Resendiz, Gerardo Esteban Alvarez and Zapata, Darcy Danitza Mari and Lopez, Julio Cesar Jesus Aguilar and Flores, Armando Adolfo Alvarez and Amador, Juan Carlos Bravo and Avila, Erendira Jocelin Dominguez and Aquino, Laura Patricia Gonzalez and Rodriguez, Ricardo Lopez and Landa, Mariana Torres and Urias, Emma and Hollmann, Markus and Hulst, Abraham and Preckel, Osne Kirzner Benedikt and Koopman-van Gemert, Ankie and Bouwman, Arthur and Buise, Marc and Tolenaar, Noortje and Weber, Eric and de Fretes, Jennifer and Houweling, Peter and Ormskerk, Patricia and Van Bommel, Jasper and Buhre, Wolfgang and Lance, Marcus and Smit-Fun, Valerie and van Zundert, Tom and Baas, Peter and de Boer, Hans Donald and Sprakel, Joost and Elferink-Vonk, Renske and Noordzij, Peter and van Zeggeren, Laura and Brand, Bastiaan and Spanjersberg, Rob and ten Bokkel-Andela, Janneke and Numan, Sandra and van Klei, Wilton and van Zaane, Bas and Boer, Christa and van Duivenvoorde, Yoni and Hering, Jens Peter and van Rossum, Sylvia and Zonneveldt, Harry and Campbell, Doug and Hoare, Siobhan and Santa, Sahayam and Ali, Marlynn and Allen, Sara Jane and Beavis, Vanessa and Bell, Rachel and Campbell, Douglas and Choi, Hyun-min David and Drake, Matthew and Farrell, Helen and Hayes, Katia and Higgie, Kushlin and Holmes, Kerry and Jenkins, Nicole and Kim, Chang Joon and Kim, Steven and Law, Kiew Chai and McAllister, Davina and Park, Karen and Pedersen, Karen and Pfeifer, Leesa and Pozaroszczyk, Anna and Salmond, Timothy and Steynor, Martin and Tan, Michael and Short, Tim and Waymouth, Ellen and Ab Rahman, Ahmad Sufian and Armstrong, John and Dudson, Rosie and Jenkins, Nia and Nilakant, Jayashree and Richard, Seigne and Virdi, Pardeep and Dixon, Liane and Donohue, Roana and Farrow, Mehreen and Kennedy, Ross and Marissa, Henderson and McKellow, Margie and Nicola, Delany and Pascoe, Rebecca and Roberts, Stephen John and Rowell, George and Sumner, Matthew and Templer, Paul and Chandrasekharan, Shardha and Fulton, Graham and Jammer, Ib and Ali, Marlynn and More, Richard and Wilson, Leona and Chang, Yuan Hsuan and Foley, Julia and Fowler, Carolyn and Panckhurst, Jonathan and Sara, Rachel and Stapelberg, Francois and Campbell, Doug and Cherrett, Veronica and Ganter, Donna Louise and McAllister, Davina and McCann, Lloyd and Foley, Julia and Gilmour, Fiona and Lumsden, Rachelle and Moores, Mark and Olliff, Sue and Sardareva, Elitza and Stapelberg, Francois and Tai, Joyce and Wikner, Matthew and Wong, Christopher and Chaddock, Mark and Czepanski, Carolyn and McKendry, Patrick and Polakovic, Daniel and Polakovich, Daniel and Robert, Axe and Belda, Margarita Tormo and Norton, Tracy and Stapelberg, Francois and Alherz, Fadhel and Barneto, Lisa and Ramirez, Alberto and Sayeed, Ahmed and Smith, Nicola and Bennett, Cambell and McQuoid, Shane and Bell, Rachel and Jansen, Tracy-Lee and Nico, Zin and Scott, John and Freschini, David and Freschini, Angela and Hopkins, Brian and Manson, Lara and Stoltz, Deon and Bates, Alexander and Davis, Simon and Freeman, Victoria and McGaughran, Lynette and Williams, Maya and Sharma, Swarna Baskar and Burrows, Tom and Byrne, Kelly and English, Duane and Johnson, Robert and Law, Kiew Chai and Manikkam, Brendon and McAllister, Davina and Naidoo, Shaun and Rumball, Margot and Whittle, Nicola and Franks, Romilla and Gibson-Lapsley, Hannah and McAllister, Davina and Salter, Ryan and Walsh, Dean and Cooper, Richard and Perry, Katherine},
  issn         = {0007-0912},
  journal      = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA},
  keywords     = {HIGH-RISK SURGERY,HOSPITAL MORTALITY,SURGICAL MORTALITY,PATIENT,MORTALITY,CANCER-SURGERY,GLOBAL HEALTH,COMPLICATIONS,OUTCOMES,QUALITY,VOLUME,postoperative care,methods,postoperative care,statistics and,numerical data,surgical procedures,operative,mortality,postoperative,care,methods},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {258--266},
  publisher    = {Oxford Univ Press},
  title        = {Use of failure-to-rescue to identify international variation in postoperative care in low-, middle- and high-income countries : a 7-day cohort study of elective surgery},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bja/aex185},
  volume       = {119},
  year         = {2017},
}

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