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Target of rapamycin signaling orchestrates growth-defense trade-offs in plants

(2018) NEW PHYTOLOGIST. 217(1). p.305-319
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Abstract
Plant defense to microbial pathogens is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants merge immune system function with normal growth and development is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase, in the plant defense response. We used rice as a model system and applied a combination of chemical, genetic, genomic and cell-based analyses. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, positively regulates growth and development in rice. Transcriptome analysis of rice cells treated with the TOR-specific inhibitor rapamycin revealed that TOR not only dictates transcriptional reprogramming of extensive gene sets involved in central and secondary metabolism, cell cycle and transcription, but also suppresses many defense-related genes. TOR overexpression lines displayed increased susceptibility to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas plants with reduced TOR signaling displayed enhanced resistance. Finally, we found that TOR antagonizes the action of the classic defense hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Together, these results indicate that TOR acts as a molecular switch for the activation of cell proliferation and plant growth at the expense of cellular immunity.
Keywords
growth-defense trade-offs, jasmonic acid, plant defense, rice (Oryza sativa), salicylic acid, target of rapamycin (TOR), ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE, INNATE IMMUNITY, TOR KINASE, CELL-CYCLE, DISEASE RESISTANCE, BALANCING ACT, LIFE-SPAN, RICE, ARABIDOPSIS, GENE

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Chicago
De Vleesschauwer, David, Osvaldo Filipe, Gena Hoffman, Hamed Seifi, Ashley Haeck, Patrick Canlas, Jonas Van Bockhaven, et al. 2018. “Target of Rapamycin Signaling Orchestrates Growth-defense Trade-offs in Plants.” New Phytologist 217 (1): 305–319.
APA
De Vleesschauwer, D., Filipe, O., Hoffman, G., Seifi, H., Haeck, A., Canlas, P., Van Bockhaven, J., et al. (2018). Target of rapamycin signaling orchestrates growth-defense trade-offs in plants. NEW PHYTOLOGIST, 217(1), 305–319.
Vancouver
1.
De Vleesschauwer D, Filipe O, Hoffman G, Seifi H, Haeck A, Canlas P, et al. Target of rapamycin signaling orchestrates growth-defense trade-offs in plants. NEW PHYTOLOGIST. 2018;217(1):305–19.
MLA
De Vleesschauwer, David, Osvaldo Filipe, Gena Hoffman, et al. “Target of Rapamycin Signaling Orchestrates Growth-defense Trade-offs in Plants.” NEW PHYTOLOGIST 217.1 (2018): 305–319. Print.
@article{8556350,
  abstract     = {Plant defense to microbial pathogens is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants merge immune system function with normal growth and development is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase, in the plant defense response. 
We used rice as a model system and applied a combination of chemical, genetic, genomic and cell-based analyses. 
We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, positively regulates growth and development in rice. Transcriptome analysis of rice cells treated with the TOR-specific inhibitor rapamycin revealed that TOR not only dictates transcriptional reprogramming of extensive gene sets involved in central and secondary metabolism, cell cycle and transcription, but also suppresses many defense-related genes. TOR overexpression lines displayed increased susceptibility to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas plants with reduced TOR signaling displayed enhanced resistance. Finally, we found that TOR antagonizes the action of the classic defense hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. 
Together, these results indicate that TOR acts as a molecular switch for the activation of cell proliferation and plant growth at the expense of cellular immunity.},
  author       = {De Vleesschauwer, David and Filipe, Osvaldo and Hoffman, Gena and Seifi, Hamed and Haeck, Ashley and Canlas, Patrick and Van Bockhaven, Jonas and De Waele, Evelien and Demeestere, Kristof and Ronald, Pamela and H{\"o}fte, Monica},
  issn         = {0028-646X},
  journal      = {NEW PHYTOLOGIST},
  keyword      = {growth-defense trade-offs,jasmonic acid,plant defense,rice (Oryza sativa),salicylic acid,target of rapamycin (TOR),ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE,INNATE IMMUNITY,TOR KINASE,CELL-CYCLE,DISEASE RESISTANCE,BALANCING ACT,LIFE-SPAN,RICE,ARABIDOPSIS,GENE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {305--319},
  title        = {Target of rapamycin signaling orchestrates growth-defense trade-offs in plants},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14785},
  volume       = {217},
  year         = {2018},
}

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