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Preconditioning with lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid protects against Staphylococcus aureus mammary infection in mice

Koen Breyne (UGent) , Jonas Steenbrugge (UGent) , Kristel Demeyere (UGent) , Tom Vanden Berghe (UGent) and Evelyne Meyer (UGent)
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Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most causative agents of mastitis and is associated with chronic udder infections. The persistency of the pathogen is believed to be the result of an insufficient triggering of local inflammatory signaling. In this study, the preclinical mastitis model was used, aiming to evaluate if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) preconditioning could aid the host in more effectively clearing or at least limiting a subsequent S. aureus infection. A prototypic Gram-negative virulence factor, i.e., LPS and Gram-positive virulence factor, i.e., LTA were screened whether they were able to boost the local immune compartment. Compared to S. aureusinduced inflammation, both toxins had a remarkable high potency to efficiently induce two novel selected innate immunity biomarkers i.e., lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1). When combining mammary inoculation of LPS or LTA prior to a local S. aureus infection, we were able to modulate the innate immune response, reduce local bacterial loads, and induce either LCN2 or CHI3L1 at 24 h post-infection. Clodronate depletion of mammary macrophages also identified that macrophages contribute only to a limited extend to the LPS/LTA-induced immunomodulation upon S. aureus infection. Based on histological neutrophil influx evaluation, concomitant local cytokine profiles and LCN2/CHI3L1 patterns, the macrophage-independent signaling plays a major role in the LPS-or LTA-pretreated S. aureus-infected mouse mammary gland. Our results highlight the importance of a vigilant microenvironment during the innate immune response of the mammary gland and offer novel insights for new approaches concerning effective immunomodulation against a local bacterial infection.
Keywords
COLONIC EPITHELIAL-CELLS, COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI, ESCHERICHIA-COLI MASTITIS, INNATE IMMUNE-SYSTEM, BOVINE MASTITIS, DAIRY-COWS, INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION, NEUTROPHIL RECRUITMENT, BACTERIAL, ADHESION, MURINE MASTITIS, intramammary injection, Staphylococcus aureus, mastitis, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, chitinase 3-like 1, lipocalin 2

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Chicago
Breyne, Koen, Jonas Steenbrugge, Kristel Demeyere, Tom Vanden Berghe, and Evelyne Meyer. 2017. “Preconditioning with Lipopolysaccharide or Lipoteichoic Acid Protects Against Staphylococcus Aureus Mammary Infection in Mice.” Frontiers in Immunology 8.
APA
Breyne, K., Steenbrugge, J., Demeyere, K., Vanden Berghe, T., & Meyer, E. (2017). Preconditioning with lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid protects against Staphylococcus aureus mammary infection in mice. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 8.
Vancouver
1.
Breyne K, Steenbrugge J, Demeyere K, Vanden Berghe T, Meyer E. Preconditioning with lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid protects against Staphylococcus aureus mammary infection in mice. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY. 2017;8.
MLA
Breyne, Koen, Jonas Steenbrugge, Kristel Demeyere, et al. “Preconditioning with Lipopolysaccharide or Lipoteichoic Acid Protects Against Staphylococcus Aureus Mammary Infection in Mice.” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 8 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8556026,
  abstract     = {Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most causative agents of mastitis and is associated with chronic udder infections. The persistency of the pathogen is believed to be the result of an insufficient triggering of local inflammatory signaling. In this study, the preclinical mastitis model was used, aiming to evaluate if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) preconditioning could aid the host in more effectively clearing or at least limiting a subsequent S. aureus infection. A prototypic Gram-negative virulence factor, i.e., LPS and Gram-positive virulence factor, i.e., LTA were screened whether they were able to boost the local immune compartment. Compared to S. aureusinduced inflammation, both toxins had a remarkable high potency to efficiently induce two novel selected innate immunity biomarkers i.e., lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1). When combining mammary inoculation of LPS or LTA prior to a local S. aureus infection, we were able to modulate the innate immune response, reduce local bacterial loads, and induce either LCN2 or CHI3L1 at 24 h post-infection. Clodronate depletion of mammary macrophages also identified that macrophages contribute only to a limited extend to the LPS/LTA-induced immunomodulation upon S. aureus infection. Based on histological neutrophil influx evaluation, concomitant local cytokine profiles and LCN2/CHI3L1 patterns, the macrophage-independent signaling plays a major role in the LPS-or LTA-pretreated S. aureus-infected mouse mammary gland. Our results highlight the importance of a vigilant microenvironment during the innate immune response of the mammary gland and offer novel insights for new approaches concerning effective immunomodulation against a local bacterial infection.},
  articleno    = {833},
  author       = {Breyne, Koen and Steenbrugge, Jonas and Demeyere, Kristel and Vanden Berghe, Tom and Meyer, Evelyne},
  issn         = {1664-3224},
  journal      = {FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {Preconditioning with lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid protects against Staphylococcus aureus mammary infection in mice},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00833},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2017},
}

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