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Electromagnetic radiation efficiency of body-implanted devices

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Abstract
Autonomous wireless body-implanted devices for biotelemetry, telemedicine, and neural interfacing constitute an emerging technology providing powerful capabilities for medicine and clinical research. We study the through-tissue electromagnetic propagation mechanisms, derive the optimal frequency range, and obtain the maximum achievable efficiency for radiative energy transfer from inside a body to free space. We analyze how polarization affects the efficiency by exciting TM and TE modes using a magnetic dipole and a magnetic current source, respectively. Four problem formulations are considered with increasing complexity and realism of anatomy. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency f for deep implantation (with a depth d greater than or similar to 3 cm) lies in the (10(8)-10(9))-Hz range and can be approximated as f = 2.2 x 10(7)/d. For a subcutaneous case (d less than or similar to 3 cm), the surface-wave-induced interference is significant: within the range of peak radiation efficiency (about 2 x 10(8) to 3 x 10(9) Hz), the max-to-min ratio can reach a value of 6.5. For the studied frequency range, 80%-99% of radiation efficiency is lost due to the tissue-air wave-impedance mismatch. Parallel polarization reduces the losses by a few percent; this effect is inversely proportional to the frequency and depth. Considering the implantation depth, the operating frequency, the polarization, and the directivity, we show that about an order-of-magnitude efficiency improvement is achievable compared to existing devices.
Keywords
DIELECTRIC-PROPERTIES, BIOLOGICAL TISSUES, FREQUENCY-RANGE, ANTENNAS, GHZ

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Nikolayev, Denys et al. “Electromagnetic Radiation Efficiency of Body-implanted Devices.” PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED 9.2 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
Nikolayev, D., Zhadobov, M., Karban, P., & Sauleau, R. (2018). Electromagnetic radiation efficiency of body-implanted devices. PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED, 9(2).
Chicago author-date
Nikolayev, Denys, Maxim Zhadobov, Pavel Karban, and Ronan Sauleau. 2018. “Electromagnetic Radiation Efficiency of Body-implanted Devices.” Physical Review Applied 9 (2).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Nikolayev, Denys, Maxim Zhadobov, Pavel Karban, and Ronan Sauleau. 2018. “Electromagnetic Radiation Efficiency of Body-implanted Devices.” Physical Review Applied 9 (2).
Vancouver
1.
Nikolayev D, Zhadobov M, Karban P, Sauleau R. Electromagnetic radiation efficiency of body-implanted devices. PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED. College pk: Amer Physical Soc; 2018;9(2).
IEEE
[1]
D. Nikolayev, M. Zhadobov, P. Karban, and R. Sauleau, “Electromagnetic radiation efficiency of body-implanted devices,” PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED, vol. 9, no. 2, 2018.
@article{8555664,
  abstract     = {Autonomous wireless body-implanted devices for biotelemetry, telemedicine, and neural interfacing constitute an emerging technology providing powerful capabilities for medicine and clinical research. We study the through-tissue electromagnetic propagation mechanisms, derive the optimal frequency range, and obtain the maximum achievable efficiency for radiative energy transfer from inside a body to free space. We analyze how polarization affects the efficiency by exciting TM and TE modes using a magnetic dipole and a magnetic current source, respectively. Four problem formulations are considered with increasing complexity and realism of anatomy. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency f for deep implantation (with a depth d greater than or similar to 3 cm) lies in the (10(8)-10(9))-Hz range and can be approximated as f = 2.2 x 10(7)/d. For a subcutaneous case (d less than or similar to 3 cm), the surface-wave-induced interference is significant: within the range of peak radiation efficiency (about 2 x 10(8) to 3 x 10(9) Hz), the max-to-min ratio can reach a value of 6.5. For the studied frequency range, 80%-99% of radiation efficiency is lost due to the tissue-air wave-impedance mismatch. Parallel polarization reduces the losses by a few percent; this effect is inversely proportional to the frequency and depth. Considering the implantation depth, the operating frequency, the polarization, and the directivity, we show that about an order-of-magnitude efficiency improvement is achievable compared to existing devices.},
  articleno    = {024033},
  author       = {Nikolayev, Denys and Zhadobov, Maxim and Karban, Pavel and Sauleau, Ronan},
  issn         = {2331-7019},
  journal      = {PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED},
  keywords     = {DIELECTRIC-PROPERTIES,BIOLOGICAL TISSUES,FREQUENCY-RANGE,ANTENNAS,GHZ},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {12},
  publisher    = {Amer Physical Soc},
  title        = {Electromagnetic radiation efficiency of body-implanted devices},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.024033},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2018},
}

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