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Harnessing fertilizer potential of human urine in a mesocosm system : a novel test case for linking the loop between sanitation and aquaculture

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Abstract
Human urine (HU) is a biogenic fertilizer which has raised immense interest owing to its capacity of combining sanitation and nutrient recovery. In search of an alternative organic fertilizer for fish culture, the nutrient potential of HU was evaluated. Fries of Indian carps and larvae of freshwater prawn were reared for 120 days under six conditions: (a) aerated and (b) non-aerated fresh HU (0.01%), (c) cattle manure (CM; 1.8 kg tank(-1)), mixed treatment with CM and HU under (d) iso-phosphorus and (e) iso-nitrogenous condition and (f) control. Monitoring of water quality and biological parameters revealed that total fish yield was the highest in CM (621.5 g tank(-1)) followed by mixed treatments under iso-nitrogenous (428 g tank(-1)) and iso-phosphorus (333 g tank(-1)) conditions, aerated HU (321 g tank(-1)) and HU (319 g tank(-1)). The gross primary productivity (GPP) in HU was satisfactory (601.8 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and superior to all but CM treatment. The abundance of heterotrophic bacteria (HB) was highest in CM and lowest in HU. Both GPP and HB population were correlated positively with fish yield per tank. Although pH in all treatments remained high (pH 8.4-8.9), no ammonia toxicity was observed. No E. coli infestation in any fish muscle was encountered. The concentrations of cadmium and lead in fish muscle were within respective safe level. The study established that high fertilizer potential of HU could be exploited as an alternative organic fertilizer or as a candidate to be blended with cattle manure.
Keywords
Urine, Ecosanitation, Close looping, Resource recycling, Fish culture, Primary productivity, Ammonia toxicity trace metals, SOURCE-SEPARATED URINE, HUMAN EXCRETA, BIOMASS PRODUCTION, PILOT-SCALE, WASTE-WATER, HUMAN FECES, PHYTOPLANKTON, AGRICULTURE, MICROALGAE, IMPACTS

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Citation

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MLA
Rana, Sukanta, et al. “Harnessing Fertilizer Potential of Human Urine in a Mesocosm System : A Novel Test Case for Linking the Loop between Sanitation and Aquaculture.” ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, vol. 39, no. 6, 2017, pp. 1545–61, doi:10.1007/s10653-017-9942-5.
APA
Rana, S., Biswas, J. K., Rinklebe, J., Meers, E., & Bolan, N. (2017). Harnessing fertilizer potential of human urine in a mesocosm system : a novel test case for linking the loop between sanitation and aquaculture. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, 39(6), 1545–1561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-9942-5
Chicago author-date
Rana, Sukanta, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Jörg Rinklebe, Erik Meers, and Nanthi Bolan. 2017. “Harnessing Fertilizer Potential of Human Urine in a Mesocosm System : A Novel Test Case for Linking the Loop between Sanitation and Aquaculture.” ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH 39 (6): 1545–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-9942-5.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Rana, Sukanta, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Jörg Rinklebe, Erik Meers, and Nanthi Bolan. 2017. “Harnessing Fertilizer Potential of Human Urine in a Mesocosm System : A Novel Test Case for Linking the Loop between Sanitation and Aquaculture.” ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH 39 (6): 1545–1561. doi:10.1007/s10653-017-9942-5.
Vancouver
1.
Rana S, Biswas JK, Rinklebe J, Meers E, Bolan N. Harnessing fertilizer potential of human urine in a mesocosm system : a novel test case for linking the loop between sanitation and aquaculture. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH. 2017;39(6):1545–61.
IEEE
[1]
S. Rana, J. K. Biswas, J. Rinklebe, E. Meers, and N. Bolan, “Harnessing fertilizer potential of human urine in a mesocosm system : a novel test case for linking the loop between sanitation and aquaculture,” ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1545–1561, 2017.
@article{8554067,
  abstract     = {Human urine (HU) is a biogenic fertilizer which has raised immense interest owing to its capacity of combining sanitation and nutrient recovery. In search of an alternative organic fertilizer for fish culture, the nutrient potential of HU was evaluated. Fries of Indian carps and larvae of freshwater prawn were reared for 120 days under six conditions: (a) aerated and (b) non-aerated fresh HU (0.01%), (c) cattle manure (CM; 1.8 kg tank(-1)), mixed treatment with CM and HU under (d) iso-phosphorus and (e) iso-nitrogenous condition and (f) control. Monitoring of water quality and biological parameters revealed that total fish yield was the highest in CM (621.5 g tank(-1)) followed by mixed treatments under iso-nitrogenous (428 g tank(-1)) and iso-phosphorus (333 g tank(-1)) conditions, aerated HU (321 g tank(-1)) and HU (319 g tank(-1)). The gross primary productivity (GPP) in HU was satisfactory (601.8 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and superior to all but CM treatment. The abundance of heterotrophic bacteria (HB) was highest in CM and lowest in HU. Both GPP and HB population were correlated positively with fish yield per tank. Although pH in all treatments remained high (pH 8.4-8.9), no ammonia toxicity was observed. No E. coli infestation in any fish muscle was encountered. The concentrations of cadmium and lead in fish muscle were within respective safe level. The study established that high fertilizer potential of HU could be exploited as an alternative organic fertilizer or as a candidate to be blended with cattle manure.},
  author       = {Rana, Sukanta and Biswas, Jayanta Kumar and Rinklebe, Jörg and Meers, Erik and Bolan, Nanthi},
  issn         = {0269-4042},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH},
  keywords     = {Urine,Ecosanitation,Close looping,Resource recycling,Fish culture,Primary productivity,Ammonia toxicity trace metals,SOURCE-SEPARATED URINE,HUMAN EXCRETA,BIOMASS PRODUCTION,PILOT-SCALE,WASTE-WATER,HUMAN FECES,PHYTOPLANKTON,AGRICULTURE,MICROALGAE,IMPACTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {1545--1561},
  title        = {Harnessing fertilizer potential of human urine in a mesocosm system : a novel test case for linking the loop between sanitation and aquaculture},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-9942-5},
  volume       = {39},
  year         = {2017},
}

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