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Abstract
Introduction: Enuresis (or Nocturnal Enuresis) is defined as discreet episodes of urinary incontinence during sleep in children over 5 years of age in the absence of congenital or acquired neurological disorders. Recommendations: Suggestions and recommendations are made on the various therapeutic options available within a South African context. These therapeutic options include; behavioural modification, pharmaceutical therapy [Desmospressin (DDAVP), Anticholinergic (ACh) Agents, Mirabegron (beta 3-adrenoreceptor agonists), and Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA)], alternative treatments, complementary therapies, urotherapy, alarm therapy, psychological therapy and biofeedback. The role of the Bladder Diary, additional investigations and Mobile Phone Applications (Apps) in enuresis is also explored. Standardised definitions are also outlined within this document. Conclusion: An independent, unbiased, national evaluation and treatment guideline based on the pathophysiological subcategory is proposed using an updated, evidence based approach. This Guideline has received endorsement from the South African Urological Association, Enuresis Academy of South Africa and further input from international experts within the field.
Keywords
Enruesis, Nocturnal Enruesis, South African, Therapeutic options, Mobile Phone Applcation (Apps), Treatment guideline, Expert consensus, NEUROGENIC DETRUSOR OVERACTIVITY, DESMOPRESSIN LYOPHILISATE MELT, OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP-APNEA, NOCTURNAL ENURESIS, PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS, URINARY-INCONTINENCE, VOIDING DYSFUNCTION, BLADDER CAPACITY, CHILDREN, ADENOTONSILLECTOMY

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Adam, Ahmed et al. “The South African Guidelines on Enuresis-2017.” AFRICAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY 24.1 (2018): 1–13. Print.
APA
Adam, A., Claassen, F., Coovadia, A., de Maayer, T., Fockema, M., Fredericks, J., Gottlich, E., et al. (2018). The South African guidelines on enuresis-2017. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, 24(1), 1–13.
Chicago author-date
Adam, Ahmed, Frederik Claassen, Ashraf Coovadia, Tim de Maayer, Margaret Fockema, Joy Fredericks, Errol Gottlich, et al. 2018. “The South African Guidelines on Enuresis-2017.” African Journal of Urology 24 (1): 1–13.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Adam, Ahmed, Frederik Claassen, Ashraf Coovadia, Tim de Maayer, Margaret Fockema, Joy Fredericks, Errol Gottlich, Lizelle Grindell, Mohamed Haffejee, John Lazarus, Cecil Levy, Kgomotso Mathabe, Mignon McCulloch, Glenda Moonsamy, Evelyn Moshokoa, Shingai Mutambirwa, Haroun Patel, André van der Merwe, Izak Van Heerden, Frans Van Vijk, Aniruddh Deshpande, Grahame Smith, and Piet Hoebeke. 2018. “The South African Guidelines on Enuresis-2017.” African Journal of Urology 24 (1): 1–13.
Vancouver
1.
Adam A, Claassen F, Coovadia A, de Maayer T, Fockema M, Fredericks J, et al. The South African guidelines on enuresis-2017. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY. 2018;24(1):1–13.
IEEE
[1]
A. Adam et al., “The South African guidelines on enuresis-2017,” AFRICAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2018.
@article{8553802,
  abstract     = {Introduction: Enuresis (or Nocturnal Enuresis) is defined as discreet episodes of urinary incontinence during sleep in children over 5 years of age in the absence of congenital or acquired neurological disorders. 
Recommendations: Suggestions and recommendations are made on the various therapeutic options available within a South African context. These therapeutic options include; behavioural modification, pharmaceutical therapy [Desmospressin (DDAVP), Anticholinergic (ACh) Agents, Mirabegron (beta 3-adrenoreceptor agonists), and Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA)], alternative treatments, complementary therapies, urotherapy, alarm therapy, psychological therapy and biofeedback. The role of the Bladder Diary, additional investigations and Mobile Phone Applications (Apps) in enuresis is also explored. Standardised definitions are also outlined within this document. 
Conclusion: An independent, unbiased, national evaluation and treatment guideline based on the pathophysiological subcategory is proposed using an updated, evidence based approach. This Guideline has received endorsement from the South African Urological Association, Enuresis Academy of South Africa and further input from international experts within the field.},
  author       = {Adam, Ahmed and Claassen, Frederik and Coovadia, Ashraf and de Maayer, Tim and Fockema, Margaret and Fredericks, Joy and Gottlich, Errol and Grindell, Lizelle and Haffejee, Mohamed and Lazarus, John and Levy, Cecil and Mathabe, Kgomotso and McCulloch, Mignon and Moonsamy, Glenda and Moshokoa, Evelyn and Mutambirwa, Shingai and Patel, Haroun and van der Merwe, André and Van Heerden, Izak and Van Vijk, Frans and Deshpande, Aniruddh and Smith, Grahame and Hoebeke, Piet},
  issn         = {1110-5704},
  journal      = {AFRICAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY},
  keywords     = {Enruesis,Nocturnal Enruesis,South African,Therapeutic options,Mobile Phone Applcation (Apps),Treatment guideline,Expert consensus,NEUROGENIC DETRUSOR OVERACTIVITY,DESMOPRESSIN LYOPHILISATE MELT,OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP-APNEA,NOCTURNAL ENURESIS,PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS,URINARY-INCONTINENCE,VOIDING DYSFUNCTION,BLADDER CAPACITY,CHILDREN,ADENOTONSILLECTOMY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {1--13},
  title        = {The South African guidelines on enuresis-2017},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afju.2017.07.002},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2018},
}

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