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Post-epizootic salamander persistence in a disease-free refugium suggests poor dispersal ability of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

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Abstract
Lack of disease spill-over between adjacent populations has been associated with habitat fragmentation and the absence of population connectivity. We here present a case which describes the absence of the spill-over of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) between two connected subpopulations of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Based on neutrally evolving microsatellite loci, both subpopulations were shown to form a single genetic cluster, suggesting a shared origin and/or recent gene flow. Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and fire salamanders were found in the landscape matrix between the two sites, which are also connected by a stream and separated by no obvious physical barriers. Performing a laboratory trial using alpine newts, we confirmed that Bsal is unable to disperse autonomously. Vector-mediated dispersal may have been impeded by a combination of sub-optimal connectivity, limited dispersal ability of infected hosts and a lack of suitable dispersers following the rapid, Bsal-driven collapse of susceptible hosts at the source site. Although the exact cause remains unclear, the aggregate evidence suggests that Bsal may be a poorer disperser than previously hypothesized. The lack of Bsal dispersal between neighbouring salamander populations opens perspectives for disease management and stresses the necessity of implementing biosecurity measures preventing human-mediated spread.
Keywords
MULTILOCUS GENOTYPE DATA, POPULATION-STRUCTURE, MICROSATELLITE LOCI, DENDROBATIDIS, INFERENCE, DIFFERENTIATION, AMPHIBIANS, SUCCESS

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MLA
van der Sluijs, Adriana Marieke, et al. “Post-Epizootic Salamander Persistence in a Disease-Free Refugium Suggests Poor Dispersal Ability of Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 8, 2018, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22225-9.
APA
van der Sluijs, A. M., Stegen, G., Bogaerts, S., Canessa, S., Steinfartz, S., Janssen, N., … Martel, A. (2018). Post-epizootic salamander persistence in a disease-free refugium suggests poor dispersal ability of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22225-9
Chicago author-date
Sluijs, Adriana Marieke van der, Gwij Stegen, Sergé Bogaerts, Stefano Canessa, Sebastian Steinfartz, Nico Janssen, Wilbert Bosman, Frank Pasmans, and An Martel. 2018. “Post-Epizootic Salamander Persistence in a Disease-Free Refugium Suggests Poor Dispersal Ability of Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22225-9.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van der Sluijs, Adriana Marieke, Gwij Stegen, Sergé Bogaerts, Stefano Canessa, Sebastian Steinfartz, Nico Janssen, Wilbert Bosman, Frank Pasmans, and An Martel. 2018. “Post-Epizootic Salamander Persistence in a Disease-Free Refugium Suggests Poor Dispersal Ability of Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 8. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22225-9.
Vancouver
1.
van der Sluijs AM, Stegen G, Bogaerts S, Canessa S, Steinfartz S, Janssen N, et al. Post-epizootic salamander persistence in a disease-free refugium suggests poor dispersal ability of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2018;8.
IEEE
[1]
A. M. van der Sluijs et al., “Post-epizootic salamander persistence in a disease-free refugium suggests poor dispersal ability of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 8, 2018.
@article{8552375,
  abstract     = {{Lack of disease spill-over between adjacent populations has been associated with habitat fragmentation and the absence of population connectivity. We here present a case which describes the absence of the spill-over of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) between two connected subpopulations of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Based on neutrally evolving microsatellite loci, both subpopulations were shown to form a single genetic cluster, suggesting a shared origin and/or recent gene flow. Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and fire salamanders were found in the landscape matrix between the two sites, which are also connected by a stream and separated by no obvious physical barriers. Performing a laboratory trial using alpine newts, we confirmed that Bsal is unable to disperse autonomously. Vector-mediated dispersal may have been impeded by a combination of sub-optimal connectivity, limited dispersal ability of infected hosts and a lack of suitable dispersers following the rapid, Bsal-driven collapse of susceptible hosts at the source site. Although the exact cause remains unclear, the aggregate evidence suggests that Bsal may be a poorer disperser than previously hypothesized. The lack of Bsal dispersal between neighbouring salamander populations opens perspectives for disease management and stresses the necessity of implementing biosecurity measures preventing human-mediated spread.}},
  articleno    = {{3800}},
  author       = {{van der Sluijs, Adriana Marieke and Stegen, Gwij and Bogaerts, Sergé and Canessa, Stefano and Steinfartz, Sebastian and Janssen, Nico and Bosman, Wilbert and Pasmans, Frank and Martel, An}},
  issn         = {{2045-2322}},
  journal      = {{SCIENTIFIC REPORTS}},
  keywords     = {{MULTILOCUS GENOTYPE DATA,POPULATION-STRUCTURE,MICROSATELLITE LOCI,DENDROBATIDIS,INFERENCE,DIFFERENTIATION,AMPHIBIANS,SUCCESS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{8}},
  title        = {{Post-epizootic salamander persistence in a disease-free refugium suggests poor dispersal ability of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22225-9}},
  volume       = {{8}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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