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Cytoplasmic glutamine synthetase gene expression regulates larval development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

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Abstract
In insects, glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of glutamine, has been reported to be associated with embryonic development, heat shock response, and fecundity regulation. However, little is known about the influence of GS on postembryonic development. In this study, we demonstrate that blocking the activity of GS in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) with use of a GS-specific inhibitor (L-methionine S-sulfoximine), led to a significant delay in larval development, pupal weight loss, and inhibition of pupation. We further identify cloned and characterized two GS genes (BdGS-c and BdGS-m) from B. dorsalis. The two GS genes identified in B. dorsalis were predicted to be located in the cytosol (BdGS-c) and mitochondria (BdGS-m), and homology analysis indicated that both genes were similar to homologs from other Dipterans, such as Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti. BdGS-c was highly expressed in the larval stages, suggesting that cytosolic GS plays a predominant role in larval development. Furthermore, RNA interference experiments against BdGS-c, to specifically decrease the expression of cytosolic GS, resulted in delay in larval development as well as pupal weight loss. This study presents the prominent role played by BdGS-c in regulating larval development and suggests that the observed effect could have been modulated through ecdysteroid synthesis, agreeing with the reduced expression of the halloween gene spook. Also, the direct effects of BdGS-c silencing on B. dorsalis, such as larval lethality, delayed pupation, and late emergence, can be further exploited as novel insecticide target in the context of pest management.
Keywords
glutamine synthetase, L-methionine S-sulfoximine, oriental fruit fly, pupation, RNA interference, MALPIGHIAN TUBULES, FLUID SECRETION, AMINO-ACIDS, PATHWAY, IDENTIFICATION, METAMORPHOSIS, SULFOXIMINE, INHIBITION, FECUNDITY, CLONING

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MLA
Zhang, Meng-Yi, Dong Wei, Ran Li, et al. “Cytoplasmic Glutamine Synthetase Gene Expression Regulates Larval Development in Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel).” ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY 97.4 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
Zhang, M.-Y., Wei, D., Li, R., Jia, H.-T., Liu, Y.-W., Taning, N. T. C., Wang, J.-J., et al. (2018). Cytoplasmic glutamine synthetase gene expression regulates larval development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 97(4).
Chicago author-date
Zhang, Meng-Yi, Dong Wei, Ran Li, Hong-Ting Jia, Yu-Wei Liu, Nji Tizi Clauvis Taning, Jin-Jun Wang, and Guy Smagghe. 2018. “Cytoplasmic Glutamine Synthetase Gene Expression Regulates Larval Development in Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel).” Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 97 (4).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zhang, Meng-Yi, Dong Wei, Ran Li, Hong-Ting Jia, Yu-Wei Liu, Nji Tizi Clauvis Taning, Jin-Jun Wang, and Guy Smagghe. 2018. “Cytoplasmic Glutamine Synthetase Gene Expression Regulates Larval Development in Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel).” Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 97 (4).
Vancouver
1.
Zhang M-Y, Wei D, Li R, Jia H-T, Liu Y-W, Taning NTC, et al. Cytoplasmic glutamine synthetase gene expression regulates larval development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 2018;97(4).
IEEE
[1]
M.-Y. Zhang et al., “Cytoplasmic glutamine synthetase gene expression regulates larval development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel),” ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 97, no. 4, 2018.
@article{8552333,
  abstract     = {{In insects, glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of glutamine, has been reported to be associated with embryonic development, heat shock response, and fecundity regulation. However, little is known about the influence of GS on postembryonic development. In this study, we demonstrate that blocking the activity of GS in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) with use of a GS-specific inhibitor (L-methionine S-sulfoximine), led to a significant delay in larval development, pupal weight loss, and inhibition of pupation. We further identify cloned and characterized two GS genes (BdGS-c and BdGS-m) from B. dorsalis. The two GS genes identified in B. dorsalis were predicted to be located in the cytosol (BdGS-c) and mitochondria (BdGS-m), and homology analysis indicated that both genes were similar to homologs from other Dipterans, such as Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti. BdGS-c was highly expressed in the larval stages, suggesting that cytosolic GS plays a predominant role in larval development. Furthermore, RNA interference experiments against BdGS-c, to specifically decrease the expression of cytosolic GS, resulted in delay in larval development as well as pupal weight loss. This study presents the prominent role played by BdGS-c in regulating larval development and suggests that the observed effect could have been modulated through ecdysteroid synthesis, agreeing with the reduced expression of the halloween gene spook. Also, the direct effects of BdGS-c silencing on B. dorsalis, such as larval lethality, delayed pupation, and late emergence, can be further exploited as novel insecticide target in the context of pest management.}},
  articleno    = {{e21447}},
  author       = {{Zhang, Meng-Yi and Wei, Dong and Li, Ran and Jia, Hong-Ting and Liu, Yu-Wei and Taning, Nji Tizi Clauvis and Wang, Jin-Jun and Smagghe, Guy}},
  issn         = {{0739-4462}},
  journal      = {{ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{glutamine synthetase,L-methionine S-sulfoximine,oriental fruit fly,pupation,RNA interference,MALPIGHIAN TUBULES,FLUID SECRETION,AMINO-ACIDS,PATHWAY,IDENTIFICATION,METAMORPHOSIS,SULFOXIMINE,INHIBITION,FECUNDITY,CLONING}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  title        = {{Cytoplasmic glutamine synthetase gene expression regulates larval development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21447}},
  volume       = {{97}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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