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Identification of an enterovirus recombinant with a torovirus-like gene insertion during a diarrhea outbreak in fattening pigs

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Abstract
Diarrhea outbreaks in pig farms have raised major concerns in Europe and USA, as they can lead to dramatic pig losses. During a suspected outbreak in Belgium of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), we performed viral metagenomics to assess other potential viral pathogens. Although PEDV was detected, its low abundance indicated that other viruses were involved in the outbreak. Interestingly, a porcine bocavirus and several enteroviruses were most abundant in the sample. We also observed the presence of a porcine enterovirus genome with a gene insertion, resembling a C28 peptidase gene found in toroviruses, which was confirmed using re-sequencing, bioinformatics, and proteomics approaches. Moreover, the predicted cleavage sites for the insertion suggest that this gene was being expressed as a single protein, rather than a fused protein. Recombination in enteroviruses has been reported as a major mechanism to generate genetic diversity, but gene insertions across viral families are rather uncommon. Although such inter-family recombinations are rare, our finding suggests that these events may significantly contribute to viral evolution.
Keywords
recombinant virus, enterovirus, viral metagenomics, virome, virus evolution, bocavirus, PORCINE-EPIDEMIC-DIARRHEA, FECAL VIROME, LAWSONIA-INTRACELLULARIS, PROTEOMICS EXPERIMENTS, UNITED-STATES, VIRUS, ALIGNMENT, SEQUENCE, CHINA, PICOBIRNAVIRUS

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MLA
Conceição-Neto, Nádia et al. “Identification of an Enterovirus Recombinant with a Torovirus-like Gene Insertion During a Diarrhea Outbreak in Fattening Pigs.” VIRUS EVOLUTION 3.2 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Conceição-Neto, N., Theuns, S., Cui, T., Zeller, M., Yinda, C. K., Christiaens, I., Heylen, E., et al. (2017). Identification of an enterovirus recombinant with a torovirus-like gene insertion during a diarrhea outbreak in fattening pigs. VIRUS EVOLUTION, 3(2).
Chicago author-date
Conceição-Neto, Nádia, Sebastiaan Theuns, Tingting Cui, Mark Zeller, Claude Kwe Yinda, Isaura Christiaens, Elisabeth Heylen, et al. 2017. “Identification of an Enterovirus Recombinant with a Torovirus-like Gene Insertion During a Diarrhea Outbreak in Fattening Pigs.” Virus Evolution 3 (2).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Conceição-Neto, Nádia, Sebastiaan Theuns, Tingting Cui, Mark Zeller, Claude Kwe Yinda, Isaura Christiaens, Elisabeth Heylen, Marc Van Ranst, Sebastien Carpentier, Hans Nauwynck, and Jelle Matthijnssens. 2017. “Identification of an Enterovirus Recombinant with a Torovirus-like Gene Insertion During a Diarrhea Outbreak in Fattening Pigs.” Virus Evolution 3 (2).
Vancouver
1.
Conceição-Neto N, Theuns S, Cui T, Zeller M, Yinda CK, Christiaens I, et al. Identification of an enterovirus recombinant with a torovirus-like gene insertion during a diarrhea outbreak in fattening pigs. VIRUS EVOLUTION. 2017;3(2).
IEEE
[1]
N. Conceição-Neto et al., “Identification of an enterovirus recombinant with a torovirus-like gene insertion during a diarrhea outbreak in fattening pigs,” VIRUS EVOLUTION, vol. 3, no. 2, 2017.
@article{8552166,
  abstract     = {Diarrhea outbreaks in pig farms have raised major concerns in Europe and USA, as they can lead to dramatic pig losses. During a suspected outbreak in Belgium of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), we performed viral metagenomics to assess other potential viral pathogens. Although PEDV was detected, its low abundance indicated that other viruses were involved in the outbreak. Interestingly, a porcine bocavirus and several enteroviruses were most abundant in the sample. We also observed the presence of a porcine enterovirus genome with a gene insertion, resembling a C28 peptidase gene found in toroviruses, which was confirmed using re-sequencing, bioinformatics, and proteomics approaches. Moreover, the predicted cleavage sites for the insertion suggest that this gene was being expressed as a single protein, rather than a fused protein. Recombination in enteroviruses has been reported as a major mechanism to generate genetic diversity, but gene insertions across viral families are rather uncommon. Although such inter-family recombinations are rare, our finding suggests that these events may significantly contribute to viral evolution.},
  articleno    = {vex024},
  author       = {Conceição-Neto, Nádia and Theuns, Sebastiaan and Cui, Tingting and Zeller, Mark and Yinda, Claude Kwe and Christiaens, Isaura and Heylen, Elisabeth and Van Ranst, Marc and Carpentier, Sebastien and Nauwynck, Hans and Matthijnssens, Jelle},
  issn         = {2057-1577},
  journal      = {VIRUS EVOLUTION},
  keywords     = {recombinant virus,enterovirus,viral metagenomics,virome,virus evolution,bocavirus,PORCINE-EPIDEMIC-DIARRHEA,FECAL VIROME,LAWSONIA-INTRACELLULARIS,PROTEOMICS EXPERIMENTS,UNITED-STATES,VIRUS,ALIGNMENT,SEQUENCE,CHINA,PICOBIRNAVIRUS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Identification of an enterovirus recombinant with a torovirus-like gene insertion during a diarrhea outbreak in fattening pigs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/vex024},
  volume       = {3},
  year         = {2017},
}

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