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Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

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Abstract
Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design. Method. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals who were asked to simulate cognitive impairment as a result of a traumatic brain injury; the last group consisted of 50 healthy controls who were instructed to put forth full effort. Results. Experimental malingerers performed significantly lower on all WMS-IV-NL tasks than did the patients and healthy controls. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed on the experimental malingerers and the patients. The first model contained the visual working memory subtests (Spatial Addition and Symbol Span) and the recognition tasks of the following subtests: Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction. The results showed an overall classification rate of 78.4%, and only Spatial Addition explained a significant amount of variation (p < .001). Subsequent logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis supported the discriminatory power of the subtest Spatial Addition. A scaled score cutoff of Conclusion. The WMS-IV-NL Spatial Addition subtest may provide clinically useful information for the detection of suboptimal performance.
Keywords
RARELY MISSED INDEX, TRAUMATIC BRAIN-INJURY, MALINGERED NEUROCOGNITIVE, DYSFUNCTION, SYMPTOM VALIDITY TESTS, DIGIT SPAN, NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL, ASSESSMENT, AMERICAN-ACADEMY, RESPONSE BIAS, 3RD EDITION, HEAD-INJURY, logistic regression., suboptimal performance, malingering, Assessment, effort indicators

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MLA
Bouman, Zita et al. “Indicators of Suboptimal Performance Embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 38.4 (2016): 455–466. Print.
APA
Bouman, Z., Hendriks, M. P., Schmand, B. A., Kessels, R. P., & Aldenkamp, A. (2016). Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV). JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 38(4), 455–466.
Chicago author-date
Bouman, Zita, Marc PH Hendriks, Ben A Schmand, Roy PC Kessels, and Albert Aldenkamp. 2016. “Indicators of Suboptimal Performance Embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 38 (4): 455–466.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bouman, Zita, Marc PH Hendriks, Ben A Schmand, Roy PC Kessels, and Albert Aldenkamp. 2016. “Indicators of Suboptimal Performance Embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 38 (4): 455–466.
Vancouver
1.
Bouman Z, Hendriks MP, Schmand BA, Kessels RP, Aldenkamp A. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV). JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 2016;38(4):455–66.
IEEE
[1]
Z. Bouman, M. P. Hendriks, B. A. Schmand, R. P. Kessels, and A. Aldenkamp, “Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV),” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 455–466, 2016.
@article{8551712,
  abstract     = {Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design. 
Method. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals who were asked to simulate cognitive impairment as a result of a traumatic brain injury; the last group consisted of 50 healthy controls who were instructed to put forth full effort. 
Results. Experimental malingerers performed significantly lower on all WMS-IV-NL tasks than did the patients and healthy controls. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed on the experimental malingerers and the patients. The first model contained the visual working memory subtests (Spatial Addition and Symbol Span) and the recognition tasks of the following subtests: Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction. The results showed an overall classification rate of 78.4%, and only Spatial Addition explained a significant amount of variation (p < .001). Subsequent logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis supported the discriminatory power of the subtest Spatial Addition. A scaled score cutoff of Conclusion. The WMS-IV-NL Spatial Addition subtest may provide clinically useful information for the detection of suboptimal performance.},
  author       = {Bouman, Zita and Hendriks, Marc PH and Schmand, Ben A and Kessels, Roy PC and Aldenkamp, Albert},
  issn         = {1380-3395},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {RARELY MISSED INDEX,TRAUMATIC BRAIN-INJURY,MALINGERED NEUROCOGNITIVE,DYSFUNCTION,SYMPTOM VALIDITY TESTS,DIGIT SPAN,NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL,ASSESSMENT,AMERICAN-ACADEMY,RESPONSE BIAS,3RD EDITION,HEAD-INJURY,logistic regression.,suboptimal performance,malingering,Assessment,effort indicators},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {455--466},
  title        = {Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2015.1123226},
  volume       = {38},
  year         = {2016},
}

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