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Do current fortification and supplementation programs assure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgian infants, toddlers, pregnant women, and lactating women?

(2018) NUTRIENTS. 10(2).
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Abstract
Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and K in Belgian infants (n = 455), toddlers (n = 265), pregnant women (n = 161), and lactating women (n = 165). The contribution of foods, fortified foods, and supplements on the total intake was quantified. 5% of toddlers, 16% of pregnant women, and 35% of lactating women had an inadequate vitamin A intake. Conversely, excessive vitamin A intakes were associated with consumption of liver (products). Furthermore, 22% of infants were at risk for inadequate vitamin D intake due to the lack of prophylaxis, while consumption of highly dosed supplements posed a risk for excessive intakes in 6%-26% of infants. Vitamin D intake in pregnant women and lactating women was inadequate (median of 51%, respectively, 60% of the adequate intake). In all groups, the risk for inadequate intake of vitamin E and K was low. Contribution of fortified foods to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake was minor, except in toddlers. National fortification strategies should be investigated as an alternative or additional strategy to prevent vitamin D and A deficiency. There is a need to revise and set uniform supplement recommendations. Finally, non-users of vitamin D prophylaxis need to be identified for targeted treatment.
Keywords
infants, toddlers, pregnant women, lactating women, dietary intake, fat-soluble vitamins, micronutrient adequacy, excessive intake, fortified foods, supplements, Belgium, FOOD-FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES, DIETARY, DESIGN, CONSUMPTION, VALIDATION, ENERGY, EUROPE

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Chicago
Moyersoen, Isabelle, Carl Lachat, Koenraad Cuypers, Karin De Ridder, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Jean Tafforeau, Stefanie Vandevijvere, et al. 2018. “Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women?” Nutrients 10 (2).
APA
Moyersoen, I., Lachat, C., Cuypers, K., De Ridder, K., Devleesschauwer, B., Tafforeau, J., Vandevijvere, S., et al. (2018). Do current fortification and supplementation programs assure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgian infants, toddlers, pregnant women, and lactating women? NUTRIENTS, 10(2).
Vancouver
1.
Moyersoen I, Lachat C, Cuypers K, De Ridder K, Devleesschauwer B, Tafforeau J, et al. Do current fortification and supplementation programs assure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgian infants, toddlers, pregnant women, and lactating women? NUTRIENTS. 2018;10(2).
MLA
Moyersoen, Isabelle, Carl Lachat, Koenraad Cuypers, et al. “Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women?” NUTRIENTS 10.2 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8551426,
  abstract     = {Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and K in Belgian infants (n = 455), toddlers (n = 265), pregnant women (n = 161), and lactating women (n = 165). The contribution of foods, fortified foods, and supplements on the total intake was quantified. 5% of toddlers, 16% of pregnant women, and 35% of lactating women had an inadequate vitamin A intake. Conversely, excessive vitamin A intakes were associated with consumption of liver (products). Furthermore, 22% of infants were at risk for inadequate vitamin D intake due to the lack of prophylaxis, while consumption of highly dosed supplements posed a risk for excessive intakes in 6%-26% of infants. Vitamin D intake in pregnant women and lactating women was inadequate (median of 51%, respectively, 60% of the adequate intake). In all groups, the risk for inadequate intake of vitamin E and K was low. Contribution of fortified foods to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake was minor, except in toddlers. National fortification strategies should be investigated as an alternative or additional strategy to prevent vitamin D and A deficiency. There is a need to revise and set uniform supplement recommendations. Finally, non-users of vitamin D prophylaxis need to be identified for targeted treatment.},
  articleno    = {223},
  author       = {Moyersoen, Isabelle and Lachat, Carl and Cuypers, Koenraad and De Ridder, Karin and Devleesschauwer, Brecht and Tafforeau, Jean and Vandevijvere, Stefanie and Vansteenland, Margot and De Meulenaer, Bruno and Van Camp, John and Van Oyen, Herman},
  issn         = {2072-6643},
  journal      = {NUTRIENTS},
  keywords     = {infants,toddlers,pregnant women,lactating women,dietary intake,fat-soluble vitamins,micronutrient adequacy,excessive intake,fortified foods,supplements,Belgium,FOOD-FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES,DIETARY,DESIGN,CONSUMPTION,VALIDATION,ENERGY,EUROPE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {Do current fortification and supplementation programs assure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgian infants, toddlers, pregnant women, and lactating women?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10020223},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2018},
}

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