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Teaching young GPs to cope with psychosocial consultations without prescribing : a durable impact of an e-module on determinants of benzodiazepines prescribing

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Abstract
Background: Despite guidelines and campaigns to change prescribing behavior, General Practitioners (GPs) continue to overprescribe benzodiazepines (BZDs). New approaches to improve prescribing are needed. Using behavior change techniques and tailoring interventions to user characteristics are vital to promote behavior change. This study evaluated the impact of an e-module on factors known to determine BZD prescribing practice. Methods: A tailored e-module that focuses on avoiding initial BZD prescriptions (and using psychological interventions as an alternative) was developed and offered to GPs in vocational training. Three self-report assessments took place: at baseline, immediately after the module (short term) and at least six months after completion (long term). Assessed determinants include GPs' attitudes concerning treatment options, perceptions of the patient and self-efficacy beliefs. Readiness to adhere to prescribing guidelines was evaluated through assessing motivation, self-efficacy and implementability of non-pharmacological interventions. Changes in determinants were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Changes in readiness to adhere to guidelines was analyzed using the nonparametric McNemar Bowker test. Results: A desirable, significant and durable impact on determinants of BZD prescribing was observed. GPs (n = 121) underwent desirable changes in their attitudes, perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs and these changes remained significant months after the intervention. Barriers to using a non-pharmacological approach often cited in literature remained absent and were not highlighted by the intervention. Furthermore a significant impact on GPs' readiness to adhere to guidelines was observed. Participants reported change in their ability to cope with psychosocial consultations and to have tried using non-pharmacological interventions. Conclusions: Tailoring an e-intervention to target group (GPs) characteristics appears to be successful in promoting behavioral change in GPs undertaking vocational training. Significant and lasting changes were observed in determinants of prescribing BZDs. The e-intervention resulted in a positive impact on participants' readiness to adhere to BZD prescribing guidance and their coping with psychosocial consultations. Investigating which mechanisms of change are responsible for the observed effectiveness could help to refine and improve future interventions.
Keywords
Benzodiazepine, General practitioner, Coping with psychosocial consultations, Psychological determinants of prescribing practice, Changing prescribing behavior, E-intervention, SELF-DETERMINATION, GENERAL-PRACTICE, INSOMNIA, MANAGEMENT, METAANALYSIS, PERCEPTIONS, EXPERIENCES, MOTIVATION, DEPENDENCE, BEHAVIOR

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MLA
Creupelandt, Hanne, et al. “Teaching Young GPs to Cope with Psychosocial Consultations without Prescribing : A Durable Impact of an e-Module on Determinants of Benzodiazepines Prescribing.” BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION, vol. 17, 2017.
APA
Creupelandt, H., Anthierens, S., Habraken, H., Declercq, T., Sirdifield, C., Siriwardena, A. N., & Christiaens, T. (2017). Teaching young GPs to cope with psychosocial consultations without prescribing : a durable impact of an e-module on determinants of benzodiazepines prescribing. BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION, 17.
Chicago author-date
Creupelandt, Hanne, Sibyl Anthierens, Hilde Habraken, Tom Declercq, Coral Sirdifield, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena, and Thierry Christiaens. 2017. “Teaching Young GPs to Cope with Psychosocial Consultations without Prescribing : A Durable Impact of an e-Module on Determinants of Benzodiazepines Prescribing.” BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION 17.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Creupelandt, Hanne, Sibyl Anthierens, Hilde Habraken, Tom Declercq, Coral Sirdifield, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena, and Thierry Christiaens. 2017. “Teaching Young GPs to Cope with Psychosocial Consultations without Prescribing : A Durable Impact of an e-Module on Determinants of Benzodiazepines Prescribing.” BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION 17.
Vancouver
1.
Creupelandt H, Anthierens S, Habraken H, Declercq T, Sirdifield C, Siriwardena AN, et al. Teaching young GPs to cope with psychosocial consultations without prescribing : a durable impact of an e-module on determinants of benzodiazepines prescribing. BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION. 2017;17.
IEEE
[1]
H. Creupelandt et al., “Teaching young GPs to cope with psychosocial consultations without prescribing : a durable impact of an e-module on determinants of benzodiazepines prescribing,” BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION, vol. 17, 2017.
@article{8550953,
  abstract     = {Background: Despite guidelines and campaigns to change prescribing behavior, General Practitioners (GPs) continue to overprescribe benzodiazepines (BZDs). New approaches to improve prescribing are needed. Using behavior change techniques and tailoring interventions to user characteristics are vital to promote behavior change. This study evaluated the impact of an e-module on factors known to determine BZD prescribing practice. 
Methods: A tailored e-module that focuses on avoiding initial BZD prescriptions (and using psychological interventions as an alternative) was developed and offered to GPs in vocational training. Three self-report assessments took place: at baseline, immediately after the module (short term) and at least six months after completion (long term). Assessed determinants include GPs' attitudes concerning treatment options, perceptions of the patient and self-efficacy beliefs. Readiness to adhere to prescribing guidelines was evaluated through assessing motivation, self-efficacy and implementability of non-pharmacological interventions. Changes in determinants were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Changes in readiness to adhere to guidelines was analyzed using the nonparametric McNemar Bowker test. 
Results: A desirable, significant and durable impact on determinants of BZD prescribing was observed. GPs (n = 121) underwent desirable changes in their attitudes, perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs and these changes remained significant months after the intervention. Barriers to using a non-pharmacological approach often cited in literature remained absent and were not highlighted by the intervention. Furthermore a significant impact on GPs' readiness to adhere to guidelines was observed. Participants reported change in their ability to cope with psychosocial consultations and to have tried using non-pharmacological interventions. 
Conclusions: Tailoring an e-intervention to target group (GPs) characteristics appears to be successful in promoting behavioral change in GPs undertaking vocational training. Significant and lasting changes were observed in determinants of prescribing BZDs. The e-intervention resulted in a positive impact on participants' readiness to adhere to BZD prescribing guidance and their coping with psychosocial consultations. Investigating which mechanisms of change are responsible for the observed effectiveness could help to refine and improve future interventions.},
  articleno    = {259},
  author       = {Creupelandt, Hanne and Anthierens, Sibyl and Habraken, Hilde and Declercq, Tom and Sirdifield, Coral and Siriwardena, Aloysius Niroshan and Christiaens, Thierry},
  issn         = {1472-6920},
  journal      = {BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION},
  keywords     = {Benzodiazepine,General practitioner,Coping with psychosocial consultations,Psychological determinants of prescribing practice,Changing prescribing behavior,E-intervention,SELF-DETERMINATION,GENERAL-PRACTICE,INSOMNIA,MANAGEMENT,METAANALYSIS,PERCEPTIONS,EXPERIENCES,MOTIVATION,DEPENDENCE,BEHAVIOR},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Teaching young GPs to cope with psychosocial consultations without prescribing : a durable impact of an e-module on determinants of benzodiazepines prescribing},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-017-1100-3},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2017},
}

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