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PAM-4 VCSEL driver with selective falling-edge pre-emphasis

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Abstract
Data centre optical links are migrating to four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) as a method to extend the data rate while covering longer distances. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) enable the integration of low-power transmitters, but their non-linear and bias-dependent behaviour makes conventional feed-forward equalisation less effective. This Letter presents a 0.13 mu m SiGe BiCMOS PAM-4 driver that boosts the falling-edge to the bottom level through a selective pre-emphasis technique. Experiments at 25 GBd (50 Gb/s) reveal that adding selective pre-emphasis to a 4-tap equalised current driving a 20.6 GHz 1.5 mu m VCSEL, relaxes the critical PAM-4 link budget requirements by >1 dB at the KP4 forward error correction threshold of 2.2 x 10(-4). The potential of PAM-4 VCSEL transmitters can be significantly enhanced by including selective pre-emphasis to the equalisation topology while requiring minimal overhead.
Keywords
IBCN, surface emitting lasers, pulse amplitude modulation, BiCMOS integrated, circuits, forward error correction, computer centres, optical links, field effect MMIC, PAM-4 VCSEL driver, selective falling-edge, pre-emphasis, data centre optical links, four-level pulse amplitude, modulation, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, low-power, transmitters, nonlinear behaviour, bias-dependent behaviour, feed-forward equalisation, silicon-germanium BiCMOS PAM-4 driver, selective pre-emphasis technique, 4-tap equalised current, critical, PAM-4 link budget requirements, forward error correction threshold, equalisation topology, bit rate 50 Gbit, s, frequency 20, 6 GHz

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Chicago
Soenen, Wouter, Joris Lambrecht, Xin Yin, S. Spiga, M. -C. Amann, Geert Van Steenberge, P. Bakopoulos, and Johan Bauwelinck. 2018. “PAM-4 VCSEL Driver with Selective Falling-edge Pre-emphasis.” Electronics Letters 54 (3).
APA
Soenen, W., Lambrecht, J., Yin, X., Spiga, S., Amann, M.-C., Van Steenberge, G., Bakopoulos, P., et al. (2018). PAM-4 VCSEL driver with selective falling-edge pre-emphasis. ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 54(3).
Vancouver
1.
Soenen W, Lambrecht J, Yin X, Spiga S, Amann M-C, Van Steenberge G, et al. PAM-4 VCSEL driver with selective falling-edge pre-emphasis. ELECTRONICS LETTERS. Hertford: Inst Engineering Technology-iet; 2018;54(3).
MLA
Soenen, Wouter, Joris Lambrecht, Xin Yin, et al. “PAM-4 VCSEL Driver with Selective Falling-edge Pre-emphasis.” ELECTRONICS LETTERS 54.3 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8550821,
  abstract     = {Data centre optical links are migrating to four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) as a method to extend the data rate while covering longer distances. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) enable the integration of low-power transmitters, but their non-linear and bias-dependent behaviour makes conventional feed-forward equalisation less effective. This Letter presents a 0.13 mu m SiGe BiCMOS PAM-4 driver that boosts the falling-edge to the bottom level through a selective pre-emphasis technique. Experiments at 25 GBd (50 Gb/s) reveal that adding selective pre-emphasis to a 4-tap equalised current driving a 20.6 GHz 1.5 mu m VCSEL, relaxes the critical PAM-4 link budget requirements by {\textrangle}1 dB at the KP4 forward error correction threshold of 2.2 x 10(-4). The potential of PAM-4 VCSEL transmitters can be significantly enhanced by including selective pre-emphasis to the equalisation topology while requiring minimal overhead.},
  author       = {Soenen, Wouter and Lambrecht, Joris and Yin, Xin and Spiga, S. and Amann, M. -C. and Van Steenberge, Geert and Bakopoulos, P. and Bauwelinck, Johan},
  issn         = {0013-5194},
  journal      = {ELECTRONICS LETTERS},
  keyword      = {IBCN,surface emitting lasers,pulse amplitude modulation,BiCMOS integrated,circuits,forward error correction,computer centres,optical links,field effect MMIC,PAM-4 VCSEL driver,selective falling-edge,pre-emphasis,data centre optical links,four-level pulse amplitude,modulation,vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,low-power,transmitters,nonlinear behaviour,bias-dependent behaviour,feed-forward equalisation,silicon-germanium BiCMOS PAM-4 driver,selective pre-emphasis technique,4-tap equalised current,critical,PAM-4 link budget requirements,forward error correction threshold,equalisation topology,bit rate 50 Gbit,s,frequency 20,6 GHz},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {2},
  publisher    = {Inst Engineering Technology-iet},
  title        = {PAM-4 VCSEL driver with selective falling-edge pre-emphasis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el.2017.3945},
  volume       = {54},
  year         = {2018},
}

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