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The ability to correct an on-going action : accuracy and correction time in elite fencing

Linus Zeuwts (UGent) , Katrien Koppo (UGent) , Greet Cardon (UGent) and Matthieu Lenoir (UGent)
(2017) ARCHIVES OF BUDO. 13. p.387-394
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Abstract
Background and Study Aim: Performing an attack in fencing takes fractions of a second implying that there is little time to correct an on-going movement to anticipate the opponent's action. Studies in the lab evaluated correction times in artificial tasks but stand in shrill contrast to elite sports where via extensive training, motor programs are mastered and perfected. This study aim was to expand the knowledge on the capability of elite fencers to correct an on-going attack on a central target when the target suddenly changes position at random time intervals. Material and Methods: Eight elite fencers ( 7 males, 18.3 +/- 4.66 years) performed a fente at a target as fast and accurate as possible. In 80% of the trials, a new target light was lit during the fente, and the fencers had to adjust their movement to hit the new illuminated target. Correction times were set at 100ms, 170ms, 240ms, 310ms or 380ms before the estimated epee-target contact. The number of successful adjustments and the radial error was reported. Results: With increasing correction times (p<0.01), radial error decreased. Based on the correction times, the inflexion point was determined at 277ms. It was demonstrated that correction time influenced the number of adjusted trials (p<0.01). Fencers were able to adjust more trials when correction times were set at 310ms and 380ms (p<0.01). Conclusions: Correction times in humans, which are often measured in laboratory settings, appear to apply for sports situations as well. A quarter of a second is sufficient to correct an on-going movement in which the whole body is involved subtle but effectively when the target unexpectedly changes position.
Keywords
epee, feint, fente, foil, motor control, on-going attack, prise de fer, INFORMATION, COORDINATION, MOVEMENTS, POSITION, HAND, EYE

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Chicago
Zeuwts, Linus, Katrien Koppo, Greet Cardon, and Matthieu Lenoir. 2017. “The Ability to Correct an On-going Action : Accuracy and Correction Time in Elite Fencing.” Archives of Budo 13: 387–394.
APA
Zeuwts, Linus, Koppo, K., Cardon, G., & Lenoir, M. (2017). The ability to correct an on-going action : accuracy and correction time in elite fencing. ARCHIVES OF BUDO, 13, 387–394.
Vancouver
1.
Zeuwts L, Koppo K, Cardon G, Lenoir M. The ability to correct an on-going action : accuracy and correction time in elite fencing. ARCHIVES OF BUDO. 2017;13:387–94.
MLA
Zeuwts, Linus, Katrien Koppo, Greet Cardon, et al. “The Ability to Correct an On-going Action : Accuracy and Correction Time in Elite Fencing.” ARCHIVES OF BUDO 13 (2017): 387–394. Print.
@article{8550696,
  abstract     = {Background and Study Aim: Performing an attack in fencing takes fractions of a second implying that there is little time to correct an on-going movement to anticipate the opponent's action. Studies in the lab evaluated correction times in artificial tasks but stand in shrill contrast to elite sports where via extensive training, motor programs are mastered and perfected. This study aim was to expand the knowledge on the capability of elite fencers to correct an on-going attack on a central target when the target suddenly changes position at random time intervals. 
Material and Methods: Eight elite fencers ( 7 males, 18.3 +/- 4.66 years) performed a fente at a target as fast and accurate as possible. In 80\% of the trials, a new target light was lit during the fente, and the fencers had to adjust their movement to hit the new illuminated target. Correction times were set at 100ms, 170ms, 240ms, 310ms or 380ms before the estimated epee-target contact. The number of successful adjustments and the radial error was reported. 
Results: With increasing correction times (p{\textlangle}0.01), radial error decreased. Based on the correction times, the inflexion point was determined at 277ms. It was demonstrated that correction time influenced the number of adjusted trials (p{\textlangle}0.01). Fencers were able to adjust more trials when correction times were set at 310ms and 380ms (p{\textlangle}0.01). 
Conclusions: Correction times in humans, which are often measured in laboratory settings, appear to apply for sports situations as well. A quarter of a second is sufficient to correct an on-going movement in which the whole body is involved subtle but effectively when the target unexpectedly changes position.},
  author       = {Zeuwts, Linus and Koppo, Katrien and Cardon, Greet and Lenoir, Matthieu},
  issn         = {1643-8698},
  journal      = {ARCHIVES OF BUDO},
  keyword      = {epee,feint,fente,foil,motor control,on-going attack,prise de fer,INFORMATION,COORDINATION,MOVEMENTS,POSITION,HAND,EYE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {387--394},
  title        = {The ability to correct an on-going action : accuracy and correction time in elite fencing},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2017},
}

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