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Inactivation of viruses and bacteriophages as models for swine hepatitis E virus in food matrices

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Abstract
Hepatitis E virus has been recognised as a food-borne virus hazard in pork products, due to its zoonotic properties. This risk can be reduced by adequate treatment of the food to inactivate food-borne viruses. We used a spectrum of viruses and bacteriophages to evaluate the effect of three food treatments: high pressure processing (HPP), lactic acid (LA) and intense light pulse (ILP) treatments. On swine liver at 400 MPa for 10 min, HPP gave log(10) reductions of ae4.2, ae5.0 and 3.4 for feline calicivirus (FCV) 2280, FCV wildtype (wt) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV 1), respectively. Escherichia coli coliphage I center dot X174 displayed a lower reduction of 1.1, while Escherichia coli coliphage MS2 was unaffected. For ham at 600 MPa, the corresponding reductions were 4.1, 4.4, 2.9, 1.7 and 1.3 log(10). LA treatment at 2.2 M gave log(10) reductions in the viral spectrum of 0.29-2.1 for swine liver and 0.87-3.1 for ham, with I center dot X174 and MNV 1, respectively, as the most stable microorganisms. The ILP treatment gave log(10) reductions of 1.6-2.8 for swine liver, 0.97-2.2 for ham and 1.3-2.3 for sausage, at 15-60 J cm(-2), with MS2 as the most stable microorganism. The HPP treatment gave significantly (p < 0.05) greater virus reduction on swine liver than ham for the viruses at equivalent pressure/time combinations. For ILP treatment, reductions on swine liver were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than on ham for all microorganisms. The results presented here could be used in assessments of different strategies to protect consumers against virus contamination and in advice to food producers. Conservative model indicators for the pathogenic viruses could be suggested.
Keywords
Model virus, Hepatitis E virus, Bacteriophage, High pressure processing, Intense light pulses, Lactic acid, HIGH HYDROSTATIC-PRESSURE, MURINE NOROVIRUS, FELINE CALICIVIRUS, ENTERIC VIRUSES, PULSED-LIGHT, LACTIC-ACID, FOODBORNE VIRUSES, A VIRUS, RNA BACTERIOPHAGES, UV INACTIVATION

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Chicago
Emmoth, Eva, Jordi Rovira, Andreja Rajkovic, Elena Corcuera, Diego Wilches Pérez, Irene Dergel, Jakob R Ottoson, and Frederik Widén. 2017. “Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteriophages as Models for Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Food Matrices.” Food and Environmental Virology 9 (1): 20–34.
APA
Emmoth, E., Rovira, J., Rajkovic, A., Corcuera, E., Wilches Pérez, D., Dergel, I., Ottoson, J. R., et al. (2017). Inactivation of viruses and bacteriophages as models for swine hepatitis E virus in food matrices. FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL VIROLOGY, 9(1), 20–34.
Vancouver
1.
Emmoth E, Rovira J, Rajkovic A, Corcuera E, Wilches Pérez D, Dergel I, et al. Inactivation of viruses and bacteriophages as models for swine hepatitis E virus in food matrices. FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL VIROLOGY. 2017;9(1):20–34.
MLA
Emmoth, Eva, Jordi Rovira, Andreja Rajkovic, et al. “Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteriophages as Models for Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Food Matrices.” FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL VIROLOGY 9.1 (2017): 20–34. Print.
@article{8549867,
  abstract     = {Hepatitis E virus has been recognised as a food-borne virus hazard in pork products, due to its zoonotic properties. This risk can be reduced by adequate treatment of the food to inactivate food-borne viruses. We used a spectrum of viruses and bacteriophages to evaluate the effect of three food treatments: high pressure processing (HPP), lactic acid (LA) and intense light pulse (ILP) treatments. On swine liver at 400 MPa for 10 min, HPP gave log(10) reductions of ae4.2, ae5.0 and 3.4 for feline calicivirus (FCV) 2280, FCV wildtype (wt) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV 1), respectively. Escherichia coli coliphage I center dot X174 displayed a lower reduction of 1.1, while Escherichia coli coliphage MS2 was unaffected. For ham at 600 MPa, the corresponding reductions were 4.1, 4.4, 2.9, 1.7 and 1.3 log(10). LA treatment at 2.2 M gave log(10) reductions in the viral spectrum of 0.29-2.1 for swine liver and 0.87-3.1 for ham, with I center dot X174 and MNV 1, respectively, as the most stable microorganisms. The ILP treatment gave log(10) reductions of 1.6-2.8 for swine liver, 0.97-2.2 for ham and 1.3-2.3 for sausage, at 15-60 J cm(-2), with MS2 as the most stable microorganism. The HPP treatment gave significantly (p {\textlangle} 0.05) greater virus reduction on swine liver than ham for the viruses at equivalent pressure/time combinations. For ILP treatment, reductions on swine liver were significantly (p {\textlangle} 0.05) greater than on ham for all microorganisms. The results presented here could be used in assessments of different strategies to protect consumers against virus contamination and in advice to food producers. Conservative model indicators for the pathogenic viruses could be suggested.},
  author       = {Emmoth, Eva and Rovira, Jordi and Rajkovic, Andreja and Corcuera, Elena and Wilches P{\'e}rez, Diego and Dergel, Irene and Ottoson, Jakob R and Wid{\'e}n, Frederik},
  issn         = {1867-0334},
  journal      = {FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL VIROLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {20--34},
  title        = {Inactivation of viruses and bacteriophages as models for swine hepatitis E virus in food matrices},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-016-9268-y},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2017},
}

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