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Daily patterns of preschoolers’ objectively measured step counts in six European countries : cross-sectional results from the ToyBox-Study

Author
Organization
Project
TOYBOX (Multifactorial evidence based approach using behavioural models in understanding and promoting fun, healthy food, play and policy for the prevention of obesity in early childhood: ToyBox)
Abstract
This study is part of the ToyBox-study, which is conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), aiming to develop a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent overweight and obesity in four-to six-year-old preschool children. In the current study, we aimed to examine and compare preschoolers' step count patterns, across the six European countries. A sample of 3578 preschoolers (mean age: 4.8 +/- 0.4) was included. Multilevel analyses were performed to take clustering of measurements into account. Based on the average hourly steps, step count patterns for the six European countries were created for weekdays and weekend days. The step count patterns during weekdays were related to the daily kindergarten schedules. Step count patterns during weekdays showed several significant peaks and troughs (p < 0.01) and clearly reflected the kindergartens' daily schedules, except for Germany. For example, low numbers of steps were observed during afternoon naptimes and high numbers of steps during recess. In Germany, step count patterns did not show clear peaks and troughs, which can be explained by a less structured kindergarten schedule. On weekend days, differences in step count patterns were observed in the absolute number of steps in the afternoon trough and the period in which the evening peak occurred. Differences in step count patterns across the countries can be explained by differences in (school) policy, lifestyle habits, and culture. Therefore, it might be important to respond to these step count patterns and more specifically to tackle the inactive periods during interventions to promote physical activity in preschoolers.
Keywords
preschool, children, physical activity, patterns, hour-by-hour, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY LEVELS, ACTIVITY GUIDELINES, SCREEN TIME, CHILD-CARE, PEDOMETER, ENOUGH

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Citation

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Chicago
Van Stappen, Vicky, Delfien Van Dyck, Julie Latomme, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Luis Moreno, Piotr Socha, Violeta Iotova, et al. 2018. “Daily Patterns of Preschoolers’ Objectively Measured Step Counts in Six European Countries : Cross-sectional Results from the ToyBox-Study.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2).
APA
Van Stappen, V., Van Dyck, D., Latomme, J., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Moreno, L., Socha, P., Iotova, V., et al. (2018). Daily patterns of preschoolers’ objectively measured step counts in six European countries : cross-sectional results from the ToyBox-Study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 15(2).
Vancouver
1.
Van Stappen V, Van Dyck D, Latomme J, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Moreno L, Socha P, et al. Daily patterns of preschoolers’ objectively measured step counts in six European countries : cross-sectional results from the ToyBox-Study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. 2018;15(2).
MLA
Van Stappen, Vicky, Delfien Van Dyck, Julie Latomme, et al. “Daily Patterns of Preschoolers’ Objectively Measured Step Counts in Six European Countries : Cross-sectional Results from the ToyBox-Study.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 15.2 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8548646,
  abstract     = {This study is part of the ToyBox-study, which is conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), aiming to develop a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent overweight and obesity in four-to six-year-old preschool children. In the current study, we aimed to examine and compare preschoolers' step count patterns, across the six European countries. A sample of 3578 preschoolers (mean age: 4.8 +/- 0.4) was included. Multilevel analyses were performed to take clustering of measurements into account. Based on the average hourly steps, step count patterns for the six European countries were created for weekdays and weekend days. The step count patterns during weekdays were related to the daily kindergarten schedules. Step count patterns during weekdays showed several significant peaks and troughs (p {\textlangle} 0.01) and clearly reflected the kindergartens' daily schedules, except for Germany. For example, low numbers of steps were observed during afternoon naptimes and high numbers of steps during recess. In Germany, step count patterns did not show clear peaks and troughs, which can be explained by a less structured kindergarten schedule. On weekend days, differences in step count patterns were observed in the absolute number of steps in the afternoon trough and the period in which the evening peak occurred. Differences in step count patterns across the countries can be explained by differences in (school) policy, lifestyle habits, and culture. Therefore, it might be important to respond to these step count patterns and more specifically to tackle the inactive periods during interventions to promote physical activity in preschoolers.},
  articleno    = {291},
  author       = {Van Stappen, Vicky and Van Dyck, Delfien and Latomme, Julie and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Moreno, Luis and Socha, Piotr and Iotova, Violeta and Koletzko, Berthold and Manios, Yannis and Androutsos, Odysseas and Cardon, Greet and De Craemer, Marieke},
  issn         = {1660-4601},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH},
  keyword      = {preschool,children,physical activity,patterns,hour-by-hour,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY LEVELS,ACTIVITY GUIDELINES,SCREEN TIME,CHILD-CARE,PEDOMETER,ENOUGH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Daily patterns of preschoolers{\textquoteright} objectively measured step counts in six European countries : cross-sectional results from the ToyBox-Study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020291},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2018},
}

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