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Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

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Abstract
Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. saliva by 50% (EC50) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol).
Keywords
Lactuca sativa, Root elongation, Phytotoxicity, Metal, Phenol, Receiving water, Effluent, PHYTOTOXICITY TESTS, PLANTS, LETTUCE, ZINC, ORGANISMS, TOLERANCE, CONTAMINATION, GERMINATION, BIOASSAY, CULTURE

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Chicago
Lyu, Jie, Jihae Park, Lalit Kumar Pandey, Soyeon Choi, Hojun Lee, Jonas De Saeger, Stephen Depuydt, and Taejun Han. 2018. “Testing the Toxicity of Metals, Phenol, Effluents, and Receiving Waters by Root Elongation in Lactuca Sativa L.” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 149: 225–232.
APA
Lyu, Jie, Park, J., Kumar Pandey, L., Choi, S., Lee, H., De Saeger, J., Depuydt, S., et al. (2018). Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L. ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, 149, 225–232.
Vancouver
1.
Lyu J, Park J, Kumar Pandey L, Choi S, Lee H, De Saeger J, et al. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L. ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY. 2018;149:225–32.
MLA
Lyu, Jie, Jihae Park, Lalit Kumar Pandey, et al. “Testing the Toxicity of Metals, Phenol, Effluents, and Receiving Waters by Root Elongation in Lactuca Sativa L.” ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY 149 (2018): 225–232. Print.
@article{8546231,
  abstract     = {Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd {\textrangle} Ni {\textrangle} Cu {\textrangle} Zn {\textrangle} Hg {\textrangle} phenol {\textrangle} As {\textrangle} Mn {\textrangle} Cr {\textrangle} Pb {\textrangle} Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. saliva by 50\% (EC50) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol).},
  author       = {Lyu, Jie and Park, Jihae and Kumar Pandey, Lalit and Choi, Soyeon and Lee, Hojun and De Saeger, Jonas and Depuydt, Stephen and Han, Taejun},
  issn         = {0147-6513},
  journal      = {ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY},
  keyword      = {Lactuca sativa,Root elongation,Phytotoxicity,Metal,Phenol,Receiving water,Effluent,PHYTOTOXICITY TESTS,PLANTS,LETTUCE,ZINC,ORGANISMS,TOLERANCE,CONTAMINATION,GERMINATION,BIOASSAY,CULTURE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {225--232},
  title        = {Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.11.006},
  volume       = {149},
  year         = {2018},
}

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