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The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the IIIA lineage

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Abstract
Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB_BceM_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 %) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 % identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. The lysis cassette of these related phages has a similar organization (putative antiholin, putative holin, endolysin, and spanins) and shows 29-98 % homology between specific lysis genes, in contrast to Enterobacteria phage P2, the hallmark phage of this genus. The AP3 and KS5 lysis genes have conserved locations and high amino acid sequence similarity. The AP3 bacteriophage particles remain infective up to 5 h at pH 4-10 and are stable at 60 A degrees C for 30 min, but are sensitive to chloroform, with no remaining infective particles after 24 h of treatment. AP3 lysogeny can occur by stable genomic integration and by pseudo-lysogeny. The lysogenic bacterial mutants did not exhibit any significant changes in virulence compared to wild-type host strain when tested in the Galleria mellonella moth wax model. Moreover, AP3 treatment of larvae infected with B. cenocepacia revealed a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in larvae survival in comparison to AP3-untreated infected larvae. AP3 showed robust lytic activity, as evidenced by its broad host range, the absence of increased virulence in lysogenic isolates, the lack of bacterial gene disruption conditioned by bacterial tRNA downstream integration site, and the absence of detected toxin sequences. These data suggest that the AP3 phage is a promising potent agent against bacteria belonging to the most common B. cenocepacia IIIA lineage strains.
Keywords
Temperate phage, Peduovirinae, Burkholderia cepacia lineage IIIA, CYSTIC-FIBROSIS PATIENTS, CEPACIA COMPLEX, PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA, BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY, ESCHERICHIA-COLI, LYSIS GENES, TOXIN GENES, CELL-LYSIS, PROTEIN, IDENTIFICATION

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Chicago
Roszniowski, Bartosz, Agnieszka Łątka, Barbara Maciejewska, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Tomasz Olszak, Yves Briers, Giles S Holt, et al. 2017. “The Temperate Burkholderia Phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae Shows Efficient Antimicrobial Activity Against B. Cenocepacia of the IIIA Lineage.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 101 (3): 1203–1216.
APA
Roszniowski, B., Łątka, A., Maciejewska, B., Vandenheuvel, D., Olszak, T., Briers, Y., Holt, G. S., et al. (2017). The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the IIIA lineage. APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 101(3), 1203–1216.
Vancouver
1.
Roszniowski B, Łątka A, Maciejewska B, Vandenheuvel D, Olszak T, Briers Y, et al. The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the IIIA lineage. APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. 2017;101(3):1203–16.
MLA
Roszniowski, Bartosz, Agnieszka Łątka, Barbara Maciejewska, et al. “The Temperate Burkholderia Phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae Shows Efficient Antimicrobial Activity Against B. Cenocepacia of the IIIA Lineage.” APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 101.3 (2017): 1203–1216. Print.
@article{8545969,
  abstract     = {Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB\_BceM\_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 \%) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 \% identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. The lysis cassette of these related phages has a similar organization (putative antiholin, putative holin, endolysin, and spanins) and shows 29-98 \% homology between specific lysis genes, in contrast to Enterobacteria phage P2, the hallmark phage of this genus. The AP3 and KS5 lysis genes have conserved locations and high amino acid sequence similarity. The AP3 bacteriophage particles remain infective up to 5 h at pH 4-10 and are stable at 60 A degrees C for 30 min, but are sensitive to chloroform, with no remaining infective particles after 24 h of treatment. AP3 lysogeny can occur by stable genomic integration and by pseudo-lysogeny. The lysogenic bacterial mutants did not exhibit any significant changes in virulence compared to wild-type host strain when tested in the Galleria mellonella moth wax model. Moreover, AP3 treatment of larvae infected with B. cenocepacia revealed a significant increase (P {\textlangle} 0.0001) in larvae survival in comparison to AP3-untreated infected larvae. AP3 showed robust lytic activity, as evidenced by its broad host range, the absence of increased virulence in lysogenic isolates, the lack of bacterial gene disruption conditioned by bacterial tRNA downstream integration site, and the absence of detected toxin sequences. These data suggest that the AP3 phage is a promising potent agent against bacteria belonging to the most common B. cenocepacia IIIA lineage strains.},
  author       = {Roszniowski, Bartosz and \unmatched{0141}\k{a}tka, Agnieszka and Maciejewska, Barbara and Vandenheuvel, Dieter and Olszak, Tomasz and Briers, Yves and Holt, Giles S and Valvano, Miguel A and Lavigne, Rob and Smith, Darren L and Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna},
  issn         = {0175-7598},
  journal      = {APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1203--1216},
  title        = {The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the IIIA lineage},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7924-7},
  volume       = {101},
  year         = {2017},
}

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