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Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region between 2002 and 2013

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Abstract
Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon where the persistence of high-risk transmission areas (hotspots) challenges the current malaria control strategies. This study aimed at identifying significant space-time clusters of malaria incidence in Loreto region 2002-2013 and to determine significant changes across years in relation to the control measures applied. Poisson regression and purely temporal, spatial, and space-time analyses were conducted. Three significantly different periods in terms of annual incidence rates (AIR) were identified, overlapping respectively with the pre-, during, and post-implementation control activities supported by PAMAFRO project. The most likely space-time clusters of malaria incidence for P. vivax and P. falciparum corresponded to the pre- and first two years of the PAMAFRO project and were situated in the northern districts of Loreto, while secondary clusters were identified in eastern and southern districts with the latest onset and the shortest duration of PAMAFRO interventions. Malaria in Loreto was highly heterogeneous at geographical level and over time. Importantly, the excellent achievements obtained during 5 years of intensified control efforts totally vanished in only 2 to 3 years after the end of the program, calling for sustained political and financial commitment for the success of malaria elimination as ultimate goal.
Keywords
SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION, ANOPHELES-DARLINGI, FALCIPARUM-MALARIA, VECTOR, DEFORESTATION, TRANSMISSION, STRATEGIES, PATTERNS, PROVINCE, IQUITOS

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MLA
Soto-Calle, Veronica, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, et al. “Spatio-temporal Analysis of Malaria Incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region Between 2002 and 2013.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Soto-Calle, V., Rosas-Aguirre, A., Llanos-Cuentas, A., Abatih, E., DeDeken, R., Rodriguez, H., Rosanas-Urgell, A., et al. (2017). Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region between 2002 and 2013. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7.
Chicago author-date
Soto-Calle, Veronica, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Emmanuel Abatih, Redgi DeDeken, Hugo Rodriguez, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, et al. 2017. “Spatio-temporal Analysis of Malaria Incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region Between 2002 and 2013.” Scientific Reports 7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Soto-Calle, Veronica, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Emmanuel Abatih, Redgi DeDeken, Hugo Rodriguez, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Dionicia Gamboa, Umberto D´Alessandro, Annette Erhart, and Niko Speybroeck. 2017. “Spatio-temporal Analysis of Malaria Incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region Between 2002 and 2013.” Scientific Reports 7.
Vancouver
1.
Soto-Calle V, Rosas-Aguirre A, Llanos-Cuentas A, Abatih E, DeDeken R, Rodriguez H, et al. Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region between 2002 and 2013. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2017;7.
IEEE
[1]
V. Soto-Calle et al., “Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region between 2002 and 2013,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 7, 2017.
@article{8545530,
  abstract     = {Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon where the persistence of high-risk transmission areas (hotspots) challenges the current malaria control strategies. This study aimed at identifying significant space-time clusters of malaria incidence in Loreto region 2002-2013 and to determine significant changes across years in relation to the control measures applied. Poisson regression and purely temporal, spatial, and space-time analyses were conducted. Three significantly different periods in terms of annual incidence rates (AIR) were identified, overlapping respectively with the pre-, during, and post-implementation control activities supported by PAMAFRO project. The most likely space-time clusters of malaria incidence for P. vivax and P. falciparum corresponded to the pre- and first two years of the PAMAFRO project and were situated in the northern districts of Loreto, while secondary clusters were identified in eastern and southern districts with the latest onset and the shortest duration of PAMAFRO interventions. Malaria in Loreto was highly heterogeneous at geographical level and over time. Importantly, the excellent achievements obtained during 5 years of intensified control efforts totally vanished in only 2 to 3 years after the end of the program, calling for sustained political and financial commitment for the success of malaria elimination as ultimate goal.},
  articleno    = {40350},
  author       = {Soto-Calle, Veronica and Rosas-Aguirre, Angel and Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro and Abatih, Emmanuel and DeDeken, Redgi and Rodriguez, Hugo and Rosanas-Urgell, Anna and Gamboa, Dionicia and D´Alessandro, Umberto and Erhart, Annette and Speybroeck, Niko},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keywords     = {SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION,ANOPHELES-DARLINGI,FALCIPARUM-MALARIA,VECTOR,DEFORESTATION,TRANSMISSION,STRATEGIES,PATTERNS,PROVINCE,IQUITOS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region between 2002 and 2013},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep40350},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2017},
}

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