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Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries

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Abstract
This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative analysis was performed using the Biocheck.UGent, a risk-based scoring system to evaluate biosecurity in pig herds, to obtain an insight into the implementation of these biosecurity measures. The database contained farm-specific biosecurity data from 574 pig farms in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, entered between January 2014 and January 2016. Third, a qualitative analysis based on a review of literature and other relevant information resources was performed for every subcategory of internal and external biosecurity in the Biocheck.UGent questionnaire. The quantitative analysis indicated that at the level of internal, external and overall biosecurity, Denmark had a significantly distinct profile with higher external biosecurity scores and less variation than the rest of the countries. This is likely due to a widely used specific pathogen-free (SPF) system with extensive focus on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used for shaping country-specific biosecurity advice to attain improved prevention and control of important pig diseases in European pig farms.
Keywords
biosecurity, disease prevention, Europe, measures, pig production, transmission routes, PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE-2, ON-FARM BIOSECURITY, BOARS SUS-SCROFA, TO-FINISH HERDS, MOUTH-DISEASE, UNITED-STATES, ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE, RESPIRATORY SYNDROME, EPIDEMIC DIARRHEA, WILD BOAR

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Citation

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Chicago
Filippitzi, Maria-Eleni, A Brinch Kruse, Merel Postma, S Sarrazin, Dominiek Maes, L Alban, LR Nielsen, and Jeroen Dewulf. 2018. “Review of Transmission Routes of 24 Infectious Diseases Preventable by Biosecurity Measures and Comparison of the Implementation of These Measures in Pig Herds in Six European Countries.” Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 (2): 381–398.
APA
Filippitzi, M.-E., Brinch Kruse, A., Postma, M., Sarrazin, S., Maes, D., Alban, L., Nielsen, L., et al. (2018). Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, 65(2), 381–398.
Vancouver
1.
Filippitzi M-E, Brinch Kruse A, Postma M, Sarrazin S, Maes D, Alban L, et al. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2018;65(2):381–98.
MLA
Filippitzi, Maria-Eleni, A Brinch Kruse, Merel Postma, et al. “Review of Transmission Routes of 24 Infectious Diseases Preventable by Biosecurity Measures and Comparison of the Implementation of These Measures in Pig Herds in Six European Countries.” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 65.2 (2018): 381–398. Print.
@article{8544937,
  abstract     = {This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative analysis was performed using the Biocheck.UGent, a risk-based scoring system to evaluate biosecurity in pig herds, to obtain an insight into the implementation of these biosecurity measures. The database contained farm-specific biosecurity data from 574 pig farms in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, entered between January 2014 and January 2016. Third, a qualitative analysis based on a review of literature and other relevant information resources was performed for every subcategory of internal and external biosecurity in the Biocheck.UGent questionnaire. The quantitative analysis indicated that at the level of internal, external and overall biosecurity, Denmark had a significantly distinct profile with higher external biosecurity scores and less variation than the rest of the countries. This is likely due to a widely used specific pathogen-free (SPF) system with extensive focus on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used for shaping country-specific biosecurity advice to attain improved prevention and control of important pig diseases in European pig farms.},
  author       = {Filippitzi, Maria-Eleni and Brinch Kruse, A and Postma, Merel and Sarrazin, S and Maes, Dominiek and Alban, L and Nielsen, LR and Dewulf, Jeroen},
  issn         = {1865-1674},
  journal      = {TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES},
  keyword      = {biosecurity,disease prevention,Europe,measures,pig production,transmission routes,PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE-2,ON-FARM BIOSECURITY,BOARS SUS-SCROFA,TO-FINISH HERDS,MOUTH-DISEASE,UNITED-STATES,ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE,RESPIRATORY SYNDROME,EPIDEMIC DIARRHEA,WILD BOAR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {381--398},
  title        = {Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12758},
  volume       = {65},
  year         = {2018},
}

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