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From lab to market : an integrated bioprocess design approach for new-to-nature biosurfactants produced by Starmerella bombicola

(2018) BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING. 115(5). p.1195-1206
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Abstract
Glycolipid microbial biosurfactants, such as sophorolipids (SLs), generate high industrial interest as 100% biobased alternatives for traditional surfactants. A well-known success story is the efficient SL producer Starmerella bombicola, which reaches titers well above 200g/L. Recent engineering attempts have enabled the production of completely new types of molecules by S. bombicola, e.g. the bolaform SLs. Scale-up of bolaform SL production was performed at 150L scale. The purified product was evaluated in detergent applications, as classic SLs are mostly applied in eco-friendly detergents. In this paper, we show that they can be used as green and non-irritant surfactants in for example (automatic) dishwashing applications. However, due to the presence of an ester function in the biosurfactant molecule a limited chemical stability at higher pH values (>6.5) was noticed, (therefore called 'non-symmetrical' (nsBola)) which, is a major drawback that will most likely inhibit market introduction. An integrated bioprocess design (IBPD) strategy was thus applied to resolve this issue. The strategy was to replace the fed fatty acids with fatty alcohols, to generate so-called "symmetrical bolaform (sBola) sophorosides (SSs)," containing two instead of one glycosidic bond. Next to a change in feeding strategy, the blocking of the fatty alcohols from metabolizing/oxidizing through the suggested omega-oxidation pathway was necessary. For the latter, two putative fatty alcohol oxidase genes (fao1 and fao2) were identified in the S. bombicola genome and deleted in the bolaform SL producing strain (Delta at Delta sble). Shake flask experiments for these new strains (Delta at Delta sble Delta fao1 and Delta at Delta sble Delta fao2) were performed to evaluate if the fed fatty alcohols were directly implemented into the SL biosynthesis pathway. Indeed, sBola sophorosides (SSs) production up to 20 g/L was observed for the Delta at Delta sble Delta fao1 strain. Unexpectedly, the Delta at Delta sble Delta fao2 strain only produced minor amounts of sBola sophorosides (SSs), and mainly nsBola SLs (alike the parental Delta at Delta sble strain). The sBola sophorosides (SSs) were purified and their symmetrical structure was confirmed by NMR. They were found to be significantly more stable at higher pH, opening up the application potential of the biosurfactant by enhancing its stability properties.
Keywords
application testing, biosurfactant, fermentation and purification, sophorolipid, Starmerella, strain engineering, CANDIDA-BOMBICOLA, SOPHOROLIPID BIOSURFACTANTS, YEAST, LIPIDS, BOLAAMPHIPHILES, IDENTIFICATION, GENE

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Chicago
Van Renterghem, Lisa, Sophie Roelants, Niki Baccile, Katrijn Uyttersprot, Marie Claire Taelman, Bernd Everaert, Stein Mincke, et al. 2018. “From Lab to Market : an Integrated Bioprocess Design Approach for New-to-nature Biosurfactants Produced by Starmerella Bombicola.” Biotechnology and Bioengineering 115 (5): 1195–1206.
APA
Van Renterghem, Lisa, Roelants, S., Baccile, N., Uyttersprot, K., Taelman, M. C., Everaert, B., Mincke, S., et al. (2018). From lab to market : an integrated bioprocess design approach for new-to-nature biosurfactants produced by Starmerella bombicola. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, 115(5), 1195–1206.
Vancouver
1.
Van Renterghem L, Roelants S, Baccile N, Uyttersprot K, Taelman MC, Everaert B, et al. From lab to market : an integrated bioprocess design approach for new-to-nature biosurfactants produced by Starmerella bombicola. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING. 2018;115(5):1195–206.
MLA
Van Renterghem, Lisa, Sophie Roelants, Niki Baccile, et al. “From Lab to Market : an Integrated Bioprocess Design Approach for New-to-nature Biosurfactants Produced by Starmerella Bombicola.” BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING 115.5 (2018): 1195–1206. Print.
@article{8544802,
  abstract     = {Glycolipid microbial biosurfactants, such as sophorolipids (SLs), generate high industrial interest as 100\% biobased alternatives for traditional surfactants. A well-known success story is the efficient SL producer Starmerella bombicola, which reaches titers well above 200g/L. Recent engineering attempts have enabled the production of completely new types of molecules by S. bombicola, e.g. the bolaform SLs. Scale-up of bolaform SL production was performed at 150L scale. The purified product was evaluated in detergent applications, as classic SLs are mostly applied in eco-friendly detergents. In this paper, we show that they can be used as green and non-irritant surfactants in for example (automatic) dishwashing applications. However, due to the presence of an ester function in the biosurfactant molecule a limited chemical stability at higher pH values ({\textrangle}6.5) was noticed, (therefore called 'non-symmetrical' (nsBola)) which, is a major drawback that will most likely inhibit market introduction. An integrated bioprocess design (IBPD) strategy was thus applied to resolve this issue. The strategy was to replace the fed fatty acids with fatty alcohols, to generate so-called {\textacutedbl}symmetrical bolaform (sBola) sophorosides (SSs),{\textacutedbl} containing two instead of one glycosidic bond. Next to a change in feeding strategy, the blocking of the fatty alcohols from metabolizing/oxidizing through the suggested omega-oxidation pathway was necessary. For the latter, two putative fatty alcohol oxidase genes (fao1 and fao2) were identified in the S. bombicola genome and deleted in the bolaform SL producing strain (Delta at Delta sble). Shake flask experiments for these new strains (Delta at Delta sble Delta fao1 and Delta at Delta sble Delta fao2) were performed to evaluate if the fed fatty alcohols were directly implemented into the SL biosynthesis pathway. Indeed, sBola sophorosides (SSs) production up to 20 g/L was observed for the Delta at Delta sble Delta fao1 strain. Unexpectedly, the Delta at Delta sble Delta fao2 strain only produced minor amounts of sBola sophorosides (SSs), and mainly nsBola SLs (alike the parental Delta at Delta sble strain). The sBola sophorosides (SSs) were purified and their symmetrical structure was confirmed by NMR. They were found to be significantly more stable at higher pH, opening up the application potential of the biosurfactant by enhancing its stability properties.},
  author       = {Van Renterghem, Lisa and Roelants, Sophie and Baccile, Niki and Uyttersprot, Katrijn and Taelman, Marie Claire and Everaert, Bernd and Mincke, Stein and Ledegen, Sam and Debrouwer, Sam and Scholtens, Kristel and Stevens, Christian and Soetaert, Wim},
  issn         = {0006-3592},
  journal      = {BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING},
  keyword      = {application testing,biosurfactant,fermentation and purification,sophorolipid,Starmerella,strain engineering,CANDIDA-BOMBICOLA,SOPHOROLIPID BIOSURFACTANTS,YEAST,LIPIDS,BOLAAMPHIPHILES,IDENTIFICATION,GENE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1195--1206},
  title        = {From lab to market : an integrated bioprocess design approach for new-to-nature biosurfactants produced by Starmerella bombicola},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.26539},
  volume       = {115},
  year         = {2018},
}

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