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Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region

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Abstract
Under temperate climates, cattle are often at pasture in summer and are not necessarily provided with shade. We aimed at evaluating in a temperate region (Belgium) to what extent cattle may suffer from heat stress (measured through body temperature, respiration rate and panting score, cortisol or its metabolites in milk, and feces on hot days) and at assessing the potential benefits of shade. During the summer of 2012, 20 cows were kept on pasture without access to shade. During the summer of 2011, ten cows had access to shade (young trees with shade cloth hung between them), whereas ten cows had no access. Climatic conditions were quantified by the Heat Load Index (HLI). In animals without access to shade respiration rates, panting scores, rectal temperatures, and milk cortisol concentrations increased as HLI increased in both 2011 and 2012. Fecal cortisol metabolites varied with HLI in 2011 only. When cattle had access to shade, their use of shade increased as the HLI increased. This effect was more pronounced during the last part of the summer, possibly due to better acquaintance with the shade construction. In this case, shade use increased to 65% at the highest HLI (79). Shade tempered the effects on respiration, rectal temperature, and fecal cortisol metabolites. Milk cortisol was not influenced by HLI for cows using shade for > 10% of the day. Therefore, even in temperate areas, cattle may suffer from heat when they are at pasture in summer and providing shade can reduce such stress.
Keywords
Animal welfare, Cortisol, Dairy cows, Heat, Panting, Shade, LACTATING DAIRY-COWS, DRY-MATTER INTAKE, MILK-YIELD, PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSES, MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE, CORTISOL METABOLITES, SUMMER CONDITIONS, SOLAR-RADIATION, HOLSTEIN DAIRY, FRIESIAN COWS

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Chicago
Veissier, Isabelle, Van laerEva, Rupert Palme, Christel Moons, Bart Ampe, Bart Sonck, Stéphane Andanson, and Frank Tuyttens. 2018. “Heat Stress in Cows at Pasture and Benefit of Shade in a Temperate Climate Region.” International Journal of Biometeorology 62 (4): 585–595.
APA
Veissier, I., Van laerEva, Palme, R., Moons, C., Ampe, B., Sonck, B., Andanson, S., et al. (2018). Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOMETEOROLOGY, 62(4), 585–595.
Vancouver
1.
Veissier I, Van laerEva, Palme R, Moons C, Ampe B, Sonck B, et al. Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOMETEOROLOGY. 2018;62(4):585–95.
MLA
Veissier, Isabelle, Van laerEva, Rupert Palme, et al. “Heat Stress in Cows at Pasture and Benefit of Shade in a Temperate Climate Region.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOMETEOROLOGY 62.4 (2018): 585–595. Print.
@article{8544070,
  abstract     = {Under temperate climates, cattle are often at pasture in summer and are not necessarily provided with shade. We aimed at evaluating in a temperate region (Belgium) to what extent cattle may suffer from heat stress (measured through body temperature, respiration rate and panting score, cortisol or its metabolites in milk, and feces on hot days) and at assessing the potential benefits of shade. During the summer of 2012, 20 cows were kept on pasture without access to shade. During the summer of 2011, ten cows had access to shade (young trees with shade cloth hung between them), whereas ten cows had no access. Climatic conditions were quantified by the Heat Load Index (HLI). In animals without access to shade respiration rates, panting scores, rectal temperatures, and milk cortisol concentrations increased as HLI increased in both 2011 and 2012. Fecal cortisol metabolites varied with HLI in 2011 only. When cattle had access to shade, their use of shade increased as the HLI increased. This effect was more pronounced during the last part of the summer, possibly due to better acquaintance with the shade construction. In this case, shade use increased to 65% at the highest HLI (79). Shade tempered the effects on respiration, rectal temperature, and fecal cortisol metabolites. Milk cortisol was not influenced by HLI for cows using shade for > 10% of the day. Therefore, even in temperate areas, cattle may suffer from heat when they are at pasture in summer and providing shade can reduce such stress.},
  author       = {Veissier, Isabelle and Van laer, Eva and Palme, Rupert and Moons, Christel and Ampe, Bart and Sonck, Bart and Andanson, Stéphane and Tuyttens, Frank},
  issn         = {0020-7128},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOMETEOROLOGY},
  keywords     = {Animal welfare,Cortisol,Dairy cows,Heat,Panting,Shade,LACTATING DAIRY-COWS,DRY-MATTER INTAKE,MILK-YIELD,PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSES,MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE,CORTISOL METABOLITES,SUMMER CONDITIONS,SOLAR-RADIATION,HOLSTEIN DAIRY,FRIESIAN COWS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {585--595},
  title        = {Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-017-1468-0},
  volume       = {62},
  year         = {2018},
}

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