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Alteration in auxin homeostasis and signaling by overexpression of PINOID kinase causes leaf growth defects in Arabidopsis thaliana

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Abstract
In plants many developmental processes are regulated by auxin and its directional transport. PINOID (PID) kinase helps to regulate this transport by influencing polar recruitment of PIN efflux proteins on the cellular membranes. We investigated how altered auxin levels affect leaf growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered PID expression levels were used to study the effect on auxin distribution and leaf development. Single knockouts showed small pleiotropic growth defects. Contrastingly, several leaf phenotypes related to changes in auxin concentrations and transcriptional activity were observed in PID overexpression (PIDOE) lines. Unlike in the knockout lines, the leaves of PIDOE lines showed an elevation in total indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Accordingly, enhanced DR5-visualized auxin responses were detected, especially along the leaf margins. Kinematic analysis revealed that ectopic expression of PID negatively affects cell proliferation and expansion rates, yielding reduced cell numbers and small-sized cells in the PIDOE leaves. We used PIDOE lines as a tool to study auxin dose effects on leaf development and demonstrate that auxin, above a certain threshold, has a negative affect on leaf growth. RNA sequencing further showed how subtle PIDOE-related changes in auxin levels lead to transcriptional reprogramming of cellular processes.
Keywords
LATERAL ROOT-FORMATION, GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS, PLANT-CELL WALLS, AGC, KINASES, PATTERN-FORMATION, ORGAN DEVELOPMENT, GENE-EXPRESSION, TRANSPORT, EXPANSION, PROTEIN, auxin, cell division, cell expansion, kinematic analysis, leaf growth, and development, PINOID (PID), RNA-sequencing

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MLA
Saini, Kumud et al. “Alteration in Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by Overexpression of PINOID Kinase Causes Leaf Growth Defects in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE 8 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Saini, K., Markakis, M. N., Zdanio, M., Balcerowicz, D. M., Beeckman, T., De Veylder, L., Prinsen, E., et al. (2017). Alteration in auxin homeostasis and signaling by overexpression of PINOID kinase causes leaf growth defects in Arabidopsis thaliana. FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE, 8.
Chicago author-date
Saini, Kumud, Marios N Markakis, Malgorzata Zdanio, Daria M Balcerowicz, Tom Beeckman, Lieven De Veylder, Els Prinsen, Gerrit TS Beemster, and Kris Vissenberg. 2017. “Alteration in Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by Overexpression of PINOID Kinase Causes Leaf Growth Defects in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Frontiers in Plant Science 8.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Saini, Kumud, Marios N Markakis, Malgorzata Zdanio, Daria M Balcerowicz, Tom Beeckman, Lieven De Veylder, Els Prinsen, Gerrit TS Beemster, and Kris Vissenberg. 2017. “Alteration in Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by Overexpression of PINOID Kinase Causes Leaf Growth Defects in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Frontiers in Plant Science 8.
Vancouver
1.
Saini K, Markakis MN, Zdanio M, Balcerowicz DM, Beeckman T, De Veylder L, et al. Alteration in auxin homeostasis and signaling by overexpression of PINOID kinase causes leaf growth defects in Arabidopsis thaliana. FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE. 2017;8.
IEEE
[1]
K. Saini et al., “Alteration in auxin homeostasis and signaling by overexpression of PINOID kinase causes leaf growth defects in Arabidopsis thaliana,” FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE, vol. 8, 2017.
@article{8543597,
  abstract     = {In plants many developmental processes are regulated by auxin and its directional transport. PINOID (PID) kinase helps to regulate this transport by influencing polar recruitment of PIN efflux proteins on the cellular membranes. We investigated how altered auxin levels affect leaf growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered PID expression levels were used to study the effect on auxin distribution and leaf development. Single knockouts showed small pleiotropic growth defects. Contrastingly, several leaf phenotypes related to changes in auxin concentrations and transcriptional activity were observed in PID overexpression (PIDOE) lines. Unlike in the knockout lines, the leaves of PIDOE lines showed an elevation in total indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Accordingly, enhanced DR5-visualized auxin responses were detected, especially along the leaf margins. Kinematic analysis revealed that ectopic expression of PID negatively affects cell proliferation and expansion rates, yielding reduced cell numbers and small-sized cells in the PIDOE leaves. We used PIDOE lines as a tool to study auxin dose effects on leaf development and demonstrate that auxin, above a certain threshold, has a negative affect on leaf growth. RNA sequencing further showed how subtle PIDOE-related changes in auxin levels lead to transcriptional reprogramming of cellular processes.},
  articleno    = {1009},
  author       = {Saini, Kumud and Markakis, Marios N and Zdanio, Malgorzata and Balcerowicz, Daria M and Beeckman, Tom and De Veylder, Lieven and Prinsen, Els and Beemster, Gerrit TS and Vissenberg, Kris},
  issn         = {1664-462X},
  journal      = {FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE},
  keywords     = {LATERAL ROOT-FORMATION,GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS,PLANT-CELL WALLS,AGC,KINASES,PATTERN-FORMATION,ORGAN DEVELOPMENT,GENE-EXPRESSION,TRANSPORT,EXPANSION,PROTEIN,auxin,cell division,cell expansion,kinematic analysis,leaf growth,and development,PINOID (PID),RNA-sequencing},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {Alteration in auxin homeostasis and signaling by overexpression of PINOID kinase causes leaf growth defects in Arabidopsis thaliana},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01009},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2017},
}

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