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Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment

(2018) ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. 161. p.392-398
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Abstract
Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1-12 mu g/kg PnTX-G and 26-66 mu g/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3% and 31.2% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25 mu g/kg for SPX-1 and 3 mu g/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment.
Keywords
Cyclic imines, Marine toxins, Shellfish, Mass spectrometry, Risk assessment, ALEXANDRIUM-OSTENFELDII DINOPHYCEAE, TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY, POISONING DSP TOXINS, RECEPTOR-BASED ASSAY, CAUSATIVE ORGANISM, GYMNODIMINE-A, PINNATOXINS, SHELLFISH, MUSSELS, SPIROLIDES

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Citation

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Chicago
Rambla-Alegre, Maria, Christopher O. Miles, Pablo de la Iglesia, Margarita Fernandez-Tejedor, Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, Wim Verbeke, et al. 2018. “Occurrence of Cyclic Imines in European Commercial Seafood and Consumers Risk Assessment.” Environmental Research 161: 392–398.
APA
Rambla-Alegre, M., Miles, C. O., de la Iglesia, P., Fernandez-Tejedor, M., Jacobs, S., Sioen, I., Verbeke, W., et al. (2018). Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 161, 392–398.
Vancouver
1.
Rambla-Alegre M, Miles CO, de la Iglesia P, Fernandez-Tejedor M, Jacobs S, Sioen I, et al. Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. 2018;161:392–8.
MLA
Rambla-Alegre, Maria, Christopher O. Miles, Pablo de la Iglesia, et al. “Occurrence of Cyclic Imines in European Commercial Seafood and Consumers Risk Assessment.” ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 161 (2018): 392–398. Print.
@article{8543352,
  abstract     = {Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1-12 mu g/kg PnTX-G and 26-66 mu g/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4\% and 4.2\% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3\% and 31.2\% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25 mu g/kg for SPX-1 and 3 mu g/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment.},
  author       = {Rambla-Alegre, Maria and Miles, Christopher O. and de la Iglesia, Pablo and Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita and Jacobs, Silke and Sioen, Isabelle and Verbeke, Wim and Samdal, Ingunn A. and Sandvik, Morten and Barbosa, Vera and Tediosi, Alice and Madorran, Eneko and Granby, Kit and Kotterman, Michiel and Calis, Tanja and Diogene, Jorge},
  issn         = {0013-9351},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {Cyclic imines,Marine toxins,Shellfish,Mass spectrometry,Risk assessment,ALEXANDRIUM-OSTENFELDII DINOPHYCEAE,TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY,POISONING DSP TOXINS,RECEPTOR-BASED ASSAY,CAUSATIVE ORGANISM,GYMNODIMINE-A,PINNATOXINS,SHELLFISH,MUSSELS,SPIROLIDES},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {392--398},
  title        = {Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.028},
  volume       = {161},
  year         = {2018},
}

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