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Dietary species richness as a measure of food biodiversity and nutritional quality of diets

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Abstract
Biodiversity is key for human and environmental health. Available dietary and ecological indicators are not designed to assess the intricate relationship between food biodiversity and diet quality. We applied biodiversity indicators to dietary intake data from and assessed associations with diet quality of women and young children. Data from 24-hour diet recalls (55% in the wet season) of n = 6,226 participants (34% women) in rural areas from seven lowand middle-income countries were analyzed. Mean adequacies of vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, calcium, iron, and zinc and diet diversity score (DDS) were used to assess diet quality. Associations of biodiversity indicators with nutrient adequacy were quantified using multilevel models, receiver operating characteristic curves, and test sensitivity and specificity. A total of 234 different species were consumed, of which < 30% were consumed in more than one country. Nine specieswere consumed in all countries and provided, on average, 61% of total energy intake and a significant contribution of micronutrients in the wet season. Compared with Simpson's index of diversity and functional diversity, species richness (SR) showed stronger associations and better diagnostic properties with micronutrient adequacy. For every additional species consumed, dietary nutrient adequacy increased by 0.03 (P < 0.001). Diets with higher nutrient adequacy were mostly obtained when both SR and DDS were maximal. Adding SR to the minimum cutoff for minimum diet diversity improved the ability to detect diets with higher micronutrient adequacy in women but not in children. Dietary SR is recommended as the most appropriate measure of food biodiversity in diets.
Keywords
sustainable diets, diet quality, malnutrition, biodiversity, food biodiversity, HUMAN HEALTH, AGRICULTURE, DIVERSITY, INDICATOR, COUNTRIES, IMPACTS

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Chicago
Lachat, Carl, Jessica E Raneri, Katherine Walker Smith, Patrick Kolsteren, Patrick Van Damme, Kaat Verzelen, Daniela Penafiel, et al. 2018. “Dietary Species Richness as a Measure of Food Biodiversity and Nutritional Quality of Diets.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (1): 127–132.
APA
Lachat, C., Raneri, J. E., Smith, K. W., Kolsteren, P., Van Damme, P., Verzelen, K., Penafiel, D., et al. (2018). Dietary species richness as a measure of food biodiversity and nutritional quality of diets. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 115(1), 127–132.
Vancouver
1.
Lachat C, Raneri JE, Smith KW, Kolsteren P, Van Damme P, Verzelen K, et al. Dietary species richness as a measure of food biodiversity and nutritional quality of diets. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2018;115(1):127–32.
MLA
Lachat, Carl, Jessica E Raneri, Katherine Walker Smith, et al. “Dietary Species Richness as a Measure of Food Biodiversity and Nutritional Quality of Diets.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 115.1 (2018): 127–132. Print.
@article{8543201,
  abstract     = {Biodiversity is key for human and environmental health. Available dietary and ecological indicators are not designed to assess the intricate relationship between food biodiversity and diet quality. We applied biodiversity indicators to dietary intake data from and assessed associations with diet quality of women and young children. Data from 24-hour diet recalls (55\% in the wet season) of n = 6,226 participants (34\% women) in rural areas from seven lowand middle-income countries were analyzed. Mean adequacies of vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, calcium, iron, and zinc and diet diversity score (DDS) were used to assess diet quality. Associations of biodiversity indicators with nutrient adequacy were quantified using multilevel models, receiver operating characteristic curves, and test sensitivity and specificity. A total of 234 different species were consumed, of which {\textlangle} 30\% were consumed in more than one country. Nine specieswere consumed in all countries and provided, on average, 61\% of total energy intake and a significant contribution of micronutrients in the wet season. Compared with Simpson's index of diversity and functional diversity, species richness (SR) showed stronger associations and better diagnostic properties with micronutrient adequacy. For every additional species consumed, dietary nutrient adequacy increased by 0.03 (P {\textlangle} 0.001). Diets with higher nutrient adequacy were mostly obtained when both SR and DDS were maximal. Adding SR to the minimum cutoff for minimum diet diversity improved the ability to detect diets with higher micronutrient adequacy in women but not in children. Dietary SR is recommended as the most appropriate measure of food biodiversity in diets.},
  author       = {Lachat, Carl and Raneri, Jessica E and Smith, Katherine Walker and Kolsteren, Patrick and Van Damme, Patrick and Verzelen, Kaat and Penafiel, Daniela and Vanhove, Wouter and Kennedy, Gina and Hunter, Danny and Odhiambo, Francis Oduor and Ntandou-Bouzitou, Gervais and De Baets, Bernard and Ratnasekera, Disna and Ky, Hoang The and Remans, Roseline and Termote, C{\'e}line},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
  keyword      = {sustainable diets,diet quality,malnutrition,biodiversity,food biodiversity,HUMAN HEALTH,AGRICULTURE,DIVERSITY,INDICATOR,COUNTRIES,IMPACTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {127--132},
  title        = {Dietary species richness as a measure of food biodiversity and nutritional quality of diets},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1709194115},
  volume       = {115},
  year         = {2018},
}

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